Iraq Knowledge Network Survey 2011 Iraq Knowledge Network Survey 2011 is part of a project implemented jointly by Central Statistics Organization (CSO), the Kurdistan Region Statistical Office (KRSO) and the United Nations to establish a socio-economic monitoring system in Iraq. Adopted by the Ministry of Planning to support evidence-based planning in implementing development plans at the national, sub-national and local government level. - The survey was managed as follows: Steering Committee: Chaired by Head of Iraq’s CSO and the Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General and Resident & Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq, with the the membership of heads of UN organizations, Information and Analysis Unit (IAU) and KRSO. Technical Committee: Consists of representatives from CSO, KRSO, the UN and IAU.
Iraq Knowledge Network Survey 2011 Objectives: Establish a database to monitor socio-economic conditions through a socio-economic monitoring system (SEMS). Provide comprehensive and periodical data on a number of indicators by including the millennium development goals (MDGs). Fill the gaps in a number of important issues by providing indicators on the district level through a systematic collection of data. Sample: Twenty-nine thousand households distributed across the country that included urban and rural areas on both governorate and district levels. Response: The percentage of response is 96,6%. The highest response was in governorates of Qadissiya, Diyala and Salah al-Din and the least was in governorates of Dahuk and Erbil.
Iraq Knowledge Network Survey 2011 The questionnaire: Fixed core and two rotating modules: Labour force and essential services Food and expenditures Governance Staff: More than 500 people from CSO from the center, governorates and KRG participated in the implementation of the survey. They were trained through 2 training courses. Each training course lasted for 6 days. Eleven training centers were established throughout Iraq to train trainers in governorates. The training lasted for 7 days. Field visits: The implementation of the survey started on the 2nd of Jan, 2011 and lasted for 48 working days. Field visits plan was divided into 4 phases, each phase lasted for 12 days. During each phase 3 visits were made to each household in order to collect the questionnaire’s data.
Indicators Supplementary Module Governance Corruption Bribery Justice Media Food Security Public Distribution System Food Consumption Expenditures (recall/diary) Household Demographics Migration Disabilities Labor Force Personal Security Social Capital and Remittances Essential Services Water Sanitation Electricity Health Shelter/Housing Justice Perceptions on quality of service Priorities for service improvements Core Module
Labour Labour Force Participation 44% of Iraqis (7.9 million persons) are in the labour force (using relaxed definition). 72% of males are in the labour force and just 13% of females. The government provides 40% of jobs, the remainder is in the private sector. It provides 45% of all employment in urban areas and 28% of employment in rural areas. Of all working females, 60% are working in the government sector. Overall, one out of six persons in the labour force is a woman. 50 Men Women 40 30 20 10 Agriculture, Mining, Quarrying Building and Housing, Food and Transport, Storage, Public Services Hunting, Forestry and Manufacturing Construction Services Communication $ Administration, and Fishing (Accommodation) Information Defense and Social Security
Labour Unemployment Unemployment rate is 11% nationally (7% of males and 13% of females). 653,000 people are unemployed, of which 496,000 are male and 157,000 are female Youth (15-24 years) unemployment is high at 18% (27% of females and 17% of males). Youth unemployment is higher in urban areas compared with rural areas Unemployment is higher among youth with a higher education
Labour Unemployment Rate of Unemployment Thi-Qar, Anbar, Diyala and Missan have the highest unemployment rates. Kirkuk, Erbil and Ninewa have the lowest unemployment rates Rural areas hardest hit by Unemployment Female unemployment is highest in Diyala, Kerbala, Thi-Qar and Sulaymaniyah governorates.
Findings: Essential Services
Essential Services Access to Electricity Access to water On average HHs receive 14.6 hours of electricity per day through a combination of the public network or private generators. 79% of HHs rate electricity service as “bad” or “very bad”. 35% of HHs believe that electricity should be the top priority for improvement – a higher proportion than any other service. Almost all HHs are connected to a public network. However, the public network provides HHs with an average of just 7.6 hours per day. No improvement since 2007 90% of HHs supplement the public network with private generators. Rural HHs receive an average of 11.4 hours in total per day compared with 15.8 hours in urban areas. Rural and poor HHs have least access to electricity. 31% of rural HHs rely entirely on the public network for their electricity compared to 5% in urban areas.
Essential Services Access to Electricity Number of hours received from public network and/or generators and reliance on the public network The public network supply is worst in Ninewa, where 82% receive less than 5 hours of electricity daily. Using a combination of public network and private generators, HHs in Basrah receive (19 hours), urban Muthanna (18 hours) and KRG (16 hours) receive most hours of electricity. HHs in Ninewa, Salah al-Din, Kirkuk, Babil, Wassit and Missan receive the lowest total electricity supply.
Essential Services Access to Drinking Water Access to electricity 65% of HHs use public network as main source of drinking water, but declining sharply in southern governorates due to salinity. Just 47% of rural HHs use the public network as their major water source compared to 72% in urban areas. 38% of HH rate availability of drinking eater as “good” or “very good”. The highest approval ratings are in KR reaching up to 89% in urban areas of Erbil governorate. The lowest are found in most rural areas of the south and centre, dropping to as low as 1% in rural Missan.
Essential Services Access to Drinking Water Access to electricity 65% of HHs use public network as main drinking water source Public network usage is low in Basrah (1%), Missan (6%) and some districts of Muthanna and Thi-Qar. HHs without access to the public network in the mountainous north and eastern areas tend to use closed wells. Others in the south draw drinking water from lakes and streams. Over one fifth of the populations in Thi-Qar (36%), Babil (31%), Baghdad (31%), Wassit (26%), Kirkuk (22%) and Diyala (21%) do this.
Essential Services Sanitation 30% of HHs has access to the public sanitation network. 4% of rural HHs have access to the public sanitation network. 53% of well off and 9% of poorer households have access to public sanitation network. HHs without access to the public network use either a septic tank (40%) or covered drain (25%) to dispose of waste. 6% use an unsafe method such as an open drain, rising to 13% among HHs in non-durable structures. 59% rate their HH’s facility as “bad” or “very bad”, rising to 85% in rural areas.
Essential Services Sanitation % of households that use public sanitation network 66% of public network users are in urban areas of Sulaymaniyah and Baghdad governorates.
Essential Services Health The average HH is just over 20 minutes away from the health facility. Among rural HHs it is 32 minutes. The longest journey is experience in rural Baghdad and Wassit (almost 50 minutes). 79% of HHs go to government clinics, public hospitals or PHCs when ill. 21% of HHs go to either a private hospital or clinic. Lack of equipment, doctors and female staff in governmental health services were quoted as key obstacle to access quality healthcare. It is important to note that this is a perception and does not reflect actual availability. Use of Public Healthcare Centres varies but is higher in rural areas. Kerbala (25%), rural Qadissiya (43%) and Kirkuk (31%) have the highest rates of usage. 2 out of 3 Iraqis have a negative opinion of health services
Essential Services Housing and Municipal Services Percentage of rural households made from non-durable structures 9% HHs are made of non-durable materials, mostly in rural areas Missan (57%), Wassit (48%), Mosul (38%) and Kirkuk (37%). 12% HHs suffer from overcrowding (3 persons or more per room), rising to 17% in rural areas. In rural Missan, 49% suffer from overcrowding.
Essential Services Solid Waste Collection 52% HHs receive solid waste collection services either directly to the HH or from a nearby container. In the KR, 96% HHs have their rubbish collected compared to 54% in urban areas of the south and centre. 48% of Iraqi HHs have no solid waste collection, rising to over 90% in rural areas. 85% rural HHs burn or bury their rubbish or dump it in open areas. This is worst in rural Ninewa, Muthanna, Qadissiya, ThiQar, Babil and Wassit. 60% of HHs have a negative opinion of solid waste disposal, rising to 88% in rural areas. Percentage of households that burn or bury their solid waste or throw it into open areas Iraq Rural Urban 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Findings III: Consumption Expenditure, Food Security and the Public Distribution System
Food and Expenditure Consumption Expenditure Average expenditures valued at market prices reached 180,673 Iraqi Dinars per person per month in the first quarter of 2011 – compared to 2007 where it was 145,820 Dinars Highest expenditures are in Mergasur district in Erbil governorate (467,323 Iraqi Dinars), Sulaymaniya governorate centre (426,415 IDs) and Soran district in Erbil governorate (380,868 IDs) - lowest expenditures are in Al Ba’aj district in Ninewa governorate (70,131 IDs) followed by Sinjar district in the same governorate (72,337 IDs) and Al Khidhir district in Muthanna governorate (77,490 IDs)
Food and Expenditure Percent of individuals within the lowest expenditure quintile
Food and Expenditure Consumption Expenditure Patterns Expenditures on 4 main groups represents 80% of consumption expenditures In Iraq, these are: Food stuffs and non-alcoholic beverages (34.5%) Dwellings, water, gas, electricity & other fuels (29.1%) Transport (8.8%) Clothing and footwear (7.5%)
Food and Expenditure Consumption Expenditure Patterns In 2011, the ratio of expenditures on food is 34.5 percent of total expenditures compared to 2007 when the ratio was 35.6 percent – this represents a slight improvement in living conditions - The lowest ratio was observed in Erbil governorate centre (20.3%) followed by Al-Shikhan district in Ninewa governorate (23.4%) - The highest ratio was observed in Al Tarmia district in Baghdad governorate (50.1%) and Al Shamiya district in Qadissiya governorate (54.7%)
Food and Expenditure The Public Distribution System The survey includes information on the percent of households receiving their food ration through the Public Distribution System (PDS) between June 2010 and January 2011. 80% of the households indicated receiving at least one PDS item between July 2010 and January 2011
Food and Expenditure The Public Distribution System The most widely available food items in the PDS are wheat flour and rice where 71% of households indicated receiving wheat flout and 64% indicated receiving rice
Food and Expenditure Dietary Diversity Iraqi households benefit from diverse diet as they consume food representing over six different food groups on a daily basis from a total of eight possible food groups. The data indicates that 98% of households consume cereal products (such as rice or wheat flour) at least 6 days per week This percent falls to 25% when considering consumption of fruits and pulses
Food and Expenditure Dietary Diversity The average dietary diversity score in 2007 is 6.4 food groups per day in 2011. This is a 2.6% increase from 2007 and indicates an improvement in food security conditions overall. The largest improvements are observed in Qadisiya governorate (16.5% increase) followed by Duhok (9.7%) and Sulaimaniya (8.3%). Deterioration was observed in Salah Al Deen, Maysan, Basrah and Thi Qar governorates compared to 2007.
Food and Expenditure Food Consumption Coping Strategies Twenty two percent of households indicated that they had used coping strategies to smooth their food consumption in 2011 compared to 29 percent of households in 2007 Significant variation in the use of coping strategies exists between governorates as over 30% of households in Salah al Deen, Anbar and Sulaimainiya governorates used coping strategies.
Findings IV: Governance
Governance Confidence in institutions Family, religious community, tribe, village and ethnic group enjoy higher levels of confidence. Formal institutions that enjoy the highest level of trust are the army, judiciary and police. International organisations and the multinational security forces enjoy much lower levels of trust 8.0 7.1 7.0 6.6 6.5 6.0 5.8 5.6 3.2 2.4
Governance Social and Political Activity 19% of the population have engaged in a form of social or political activity such as signing a petition, participating in a demonstration or rally etc in last 12 months. Signed a petition 6% Attend a demonstration 5% Use radio/TV to express opinions on politics 4% Attend a political discussion or rally 5% Give money to a social or a political activity 3% Contact a civil servant to express an opinion 7% Contact a politician to express a point of view 5%
Governance Prevalence of bribery 12% all Iraqis who had contacts with civil servants gave a bribe. Citizens most likely to give bribes to officers from the police, land registry, tax authority, customs and car registration. Doctors and teachers are the public officials for which citizens report low levels of bribe requests. 14% 12% 10% Prevalence of bribery 8% 6% 4% 2% Police Judges Iraqi security forces Nurses Tax/revenue officers Prosecutors Members of municipal govt PDS officers Land registry officers Doctors Teachers Welfare agency officers Public utilities officers Car registration/ driving officers Municipal/governorate officers Customs officers
Governance Bribery On average, bribe-payers had to give almost 4 bribes in a year. In 41% of cases, a bribe is explicitly requested, in 23% the citizen is made to understand implicitly and in 14% through a 3rd person. Bribes are made to speed up a procedure (46%) or receive a better service (27%). Less than 5% of bribery cases are reported Perceptions of Prevalence of Corruption Media Judiciary Business/Private Sector Iraqis perceptions indicate that political parties and civil servants from local authorities are believed to be heavily affected by corruption, while the media and judiciary, less so. Government State - Owned Enterprises Parliament Civil Servants of Local Government Civil Servants of Ministries 54% believe that corruption has increased in the past two years. Political Parties 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Governance Bribery Proportion of population with direct or indirect experience of bribery, by governorate (Iraq, 2011) In Baghdad the prevalence of bribery reaches 29% in KR it is 4% and in the rest of Iraq it is 10%. Bribery is more frequent in urban than rural contexts (13% vs 10%).
Dissemination of Information
Iraq Knowledge Network Dissemination Central Statistical Organization website http://cosit.gov.iq/index.php Also available on the Iraq Information Portal http://www.iauiraq.org/gp-ar/ Special site on the Inter agency Information and Analysis Unit website http://www.iauiraq.org/ikn/
Next steps MOP is developing a Socio-Economic Monitoring System to monitor developments systematically IKN data analysis will help the government of Iraq and its development partners to prioritize and better address gaps IKN will inform future monitoring activities, such as the forthcoming National Human Development Report for Iraq Governorate Level Reports and a KRG Report will be produced Analytical Reports on Governance, Food and Expenditure, Essential Services and Labour are prepared by UN / GOI Thematic Cells