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Extended Learning Module E. Network Basics. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES. Identify and describe the four basic concepts on which networks are built and describe what is needed to set up a small peer-to-peer network at home. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES.

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Extended Learning Module E

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student learning outcomes
  • Identify and describe the four basic concepts on which networks are built and describe what is needed to set up a small peer-to-peer network at home.


  • Describe the components used to build large business networks and define and compare local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and metropolitan area networks (MANs).
  • Compare and contrast the various Internet connection possibilities.


  • Compare and contrast the types of communications media.
  • State the four principles of computer security and describe how different network security devices reflect those principles.
  • Computer network
    • two or more computers connected
    • to can communicate with each other and share information, software, peripheral devices, and/or processing power
basic principles of networks
Basic Principles of Networks
  • Four main principles
  • Each computer must have a network interface to provide a doorway for information
  • The network usually has at least one connecting device
  • The network must have communications media to transport information
basic principles of networks1
Basic Principles of Networks
  • Each computer must have software to move information in and out of the computer
  • These four principles apply to all networks, large and small
home networks
  • A typical home network setup has
    • An Ethernet network card in each computer or a wireless card in each laptop
    • Network cables to transmit signals, or radio waves for wireless
    • A DSL or cable modem connection and a broadband/home router
network cards
Network Cards
  • Network interface card (NIC) – an expansion card or PC card that connects your computer to a network
    • Ethernet card – the most common type of network interface card
    • Built into the motherboards of many new computers
wired transmission media
Wired Transmission Media
  • Cat 5 (Category 5) cable – better-constructed version of phone twisted-pair cable
wireless transmission media
Wireless Transmission Media
  • Wireless Access Point (WAP) – device that allows a computer to use radio waves to access a network
  • Connects to switch with a cable like a wired computer
  • May be built into broadband router and not require separate cabling
home internet service
Home Internet Service
  • Broadband router or home router – a device to connect computers together to share DSL or cable Internet service in a home or small office
    • One port to plug into DSL or cable connection to connect to the Internet
    • Usually several ports to build a network for home computers or printers and share Internet connection
network software
Network Software
  • Makes each computer's hardware work
  • Can use Windows
  • Turn on filesharing to make files available to other computers on the network
network components
  • Switch – a device that connects computers and repeats transmissions only to intended recipient
    • Multiple conversations can occur simultaneously between different sets of computers
    • Only recipient computer sees each message
    • Computers can still broadcast messages to all other computers on the network
network components1
  • Router – a device that connects subnetworks (subnets) of a larger network
    • Can connect different buildings at same or different locations
    • Passes transmissions from one network to another
    • May pass through multiple routers on the way from source to destination
network components2
  • More on routers
    • Home/broadband routers often have built-in switches
    • Corporate routers generally require separate switches
    • Routers must be configured with information about the networks they connect
networks by distance
  • Large networks can be classified by the size of the area(s) they serve:
    • Local Area Network (LAN) – network that serves a building or buildings in a contiguous area
networks by distance1
  • More networks by distance
    • Wide Area Network (WAN) – a set of connected networks serving areas not immediately contiguous
    • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – a set of connected networks within the same city or metropolitan area but not in immediate proximity to each other
the internet
  • A vast network of computers that connects people all over the world
  • Using a globally accepted addressing scheme
  • Computers pass messages through routers to their ultimate destinations
  • Each router determines whether it has a direct path to the recipient or whether to send the message on to another router
  • The amount of information that can be transferred in a given amount of time
  • Usually expressed as bits per second (bps)
  • Higher bandwidths expressed as
    • kilobits per second (Kbps) – thousands of bits per second
    • megabits per second (Mbps) – millions of bits per second
    • gigabits per second (Gbps) – billions of bits per second
internet connection types
Internet Connection Types
  • Phone line and dialup modem 
  • Phone line and DSL modem
  • Cable TV line and cable modem
  • Cellular modem
  • Satellite modem
  • Dedicated high-speed business lines
broadband internet connection
Broadband Internet Connection
  • Broadband – high-capacity telecommunications line capable of providing high-speed Internet service
  • All Internet access methods on the previous slide are broadband except the dialup modem
dialup connection
Dialup Connection
  • Modem – connects a computer to a phone line to access another computer or network
  • Modulates outgoing signal from digital to analog form
  • Demodulates incoming signal from analog to digital form
digital subscriber line dsl
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) – high-speed Internet connection using phone lines, which allows you to use your phone for voice communications at the same time
  • Runs at a higher frequency than voice conversations, so not supported on some older phone lines
cable modem
Cable Modem
  • Cable modem – uses your TV cable to deliver an Internet connection
satellite modem
Satellite Modem
  • Satellite modem – delivers Internet access by means of a satellite dish
  • Satellite TV and modem may share same dish or may be separate
  • Connects to computer or broadband router like cable modem
t1 and ds3 business lines
T1 and DS3 Business Lines
  • T1 and DS3 developed by phone companies to carry many long-distance voice conversations
  • T1 runs up to about 1.5 Mbps
  • DS3 runs up to about 45 Mbps
  • Can carry both voice and network over the same lines
frame relay and atm business services
Frame Relay and ATM Business Services
  • Frame Relay and ATM are used to connect many branch offices to the main office
  • Use virtual circuits to simulate having a line from every office to every other office

Virtual Circuits

comparison of connection types
Comparison of Connection Types
  • Telephone modem
    • + Inexpensive and available anywhere there's a phone line
    • - Slow, and ties up the line for voice calls too
  • DSL
    • + Higher-speed connection, doesn't tie up the phone line for voice calls, and can be left on all the time
    • - Not available in all areas or on all lines
comparison of connection types1
Comparison of Connection Types
  • Cable modem
    • + Higher-speed connection, doesn't use the phone line at all, and is always-on
    • - Connection shared with others in the neighborhood, so speed may vary
  • Satellite modem
    • + Available in remote locations where DSL and cable aren't
    • - High cost
comparison of connection types2
Comparison of Connection Types
  • T1 and DS3
    • + High-speed to very-high-speed connections, can transmit both voice and data
    • - High cost that may be mileage-dependent
  • Frame relay and ATM
    • + Use virtual circuits to simulate more inter-office connections than are physically present
    • - High cost normally affordable only by mid- to large-scale enterprises
voice over ip
Voice Over IP
  • Voice over IP – allows you to send voice communications over the Internet and avoid long-distance toll charges
  • No long-distance calling cost
network communications media
  • Communications media – the paths in a network over which information travels
  • Wired communications media – transmit information over a closed, connected path
  • Wireless communications media – transmit information through the air
wired communications media
Wired Communications Media
  • Twisted-pair cable – a bundle of copper wires for transmitting voice or data
  • Cat 5 and Cat 5e are common for modern networks
  • Coaxial cable (coax) – one central wire surrounded by insulation, a metallic shield, and a covering of insulation
wired communications media1
Wired Communications Media
  • Optical fiber – uses a very thin glass or plastic fiber through which pulses of light travel
wireless communications media
Wireless Communications Media
  • Wi-Fi or Wireless Fidelity
    • a standard for transmitting information in the form of radio waves
    • over distances of about 100 feet
    • with directional antennas, the distance can be increased to several miles
  • Wi-Fi hotspots – sites that offer wireless Internet access for your laptop or tablet.
wireless communications media1
Wireless Communications Media
  • Bluetooth
    • a standard for transmitting information in the form of short-range radio waves
    • over distances of up to 30 feet
    • used for purposes such as wirelessly connecting a cell phone to a computer
  • Infrared – uses red light to send and receive information
wireless communications media2
Wireless Communications Media
  • Microwave – a type of radio transmission
    • Repeater – receives a radio signal, strengthens it, and sends it on
  • Satellite – microwave in space where the signal shoots up to a satellite above the earth and is reflected down again.
wireless communications media4
Wireless Communications Media
  • Communications Satellite – microwave repeater in space
network security
  • The four principles of network security are:
    • Confidentiality
    • Authenticity
    • Integrity
    • Availability
network security1
  • Confidentiality – information can be obtained only by those authorized to access it
    • Bank statements, credit reports, employee evaluations
    • Threatened by capture of network transmissions and easily-guessed passwords
network security2
  • Authenticity – information really comes from the source it claims to come from
    • Military orders, medical diagnoses, stockbroker directions
    • Threatened by fraudulent e-mails and misspellings of popular Web site names
network security3
  • Integrity – information has not been altered
    • Bank balance, corporate Web site, prescriptions, credit card charges
    • Threatened by forged network transmissions and faulty server software
network security4
  • Availability – a service or resource is available when it's supposed to be
    • Mail-order Web site, corporate e-mail server
    • Threatened by network failures, faulty server software, and high volumes of malicious network traffic
firewalls intrusion detection systems
Firewalls & Intrusion Detection Systems
  • Firewall – protects a computer from intruders
  • Intrusion detection system (IDS) – watches for and reports intrusion attempts
  • Intrusion prevention system (IPS) – type of IDS that also takes action against intrusion attempts
  • Encryption
    • scrambles data so you can't read it without having the decryption key
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    • encrypts all network transmissions between two endpoints
    • to protect confidentiality and integrity of data
  • Malware – software designed to harm your computer or security
    • Virus – software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage
    • Worm – spreads itself from computer to computer via e-mail and other network traffic
    • Spyware – collects information about you and reports it to someone else without your permission