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  1. Terminology • Monoalphabetic ciphers (Shift, Affine) • Permutation Cipher; Vigenere • Substitution Cipher and one-time pad Classical Ciphers CSCI283/172 Fall 2008 GWU

  2. From Schneier Some terminology A senderencrypts a plaintext message to get ciphertext which is sent to the receiver who decrypts it to obtain the plaintext. e(P) = C d(C) = P d(e(P)) = P; de = I  e one-to-one For the application of secret communication between two parties, it should not be possible for an eavesdropper to decrypt the message. i.e d should be easy for the (legitimate) receiver, not for anyone else. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  3. From Schneier: Some terminology - contd. • Cipher: is the cryptographical algorithm/mathematical function used to encrypt • A restricted cipher is one whose security depends on keeping the algorithm secret. Inadequate, because doing so does not provide a systematic way of simulated attack/vulnerability analysis by external experts - which typically improves security . CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  4. From Schneier: Some terminology - contd. • A key is used as a parameter in some ciphers. The security of ciphers that use keys is based on keeping the key(s), and not the cipher, secret. eK1(P) = C; dK2(C) = P • Keyspace: set of all possible keys. • Cryptosystem: algorithm + all ciphertexts + all plaintexts + all keys CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  5. From Stinson Formal definition: cryptosystem A cryptosystem consists of: P set of all plaintext C set of all ciphertext K set of all keys E set of encryption rules, eK: PC D set of decryption rules dK : CP dK eK(x) = x dK eK invertible and inverses of each other CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  6. Typical Scenario • Alice and Bob randomly choose a key, K  K when they are unobserved or communicating on a secure channel • If Alice wants to send Bob a message, x1x2x3x4…xn She sends: y1y2y3y4…yn Where yi = eK(xi) xi is a symbol from the alphabet CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  7. Shift cipher on English alphabetClassical Substitution Cipher A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Key = k (add 10, so A goes to 10, i.e. k) ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Klmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghij Encryption example CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  8. Some more definitions • Substitution cipher: A letter in the plaintext is substituted with another letter from the same alphabet • Transposition Cipher: Plaintext positions are changed, but letters are not. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  9. From Schneier Some terminology - Cryptanalysis • Cryptanalysis is an (usually vulnerability) analysis of a cipher. • Loss of key through means other than cryptanalysis (storage of key in an insecure fashion, for example) is a compromise. • An attempt at cryptanalysis is an attack Kerckhoff’s assumption is that security resides entirely in the key, i.e. cipher not restricted in any way. This assumption is useful for external/open vulnerability analysis of different ciphers and for determining their security. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  10. From Schneier Cryptanalysis - types of attacks • Known-plaintext: m and c known When a known message/expected message is encrypted, as in file headers in known file-types (jpeg, tiff) • Chosen-plaintext: m chosen by attacker Attacker manages to make naïve encrypter encrypt a chosen message • Adaptive-chosen-plaintext: m chosen by attacker as attack proceeds • Chosen-key: k chosen CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  11. From Schneier Cryptanalysis - types of attacks – contd. • Ciphertext-only: c known Any eavesdropping/wire tapping/message interception • Chosen-ciphertext: c chosen by attacker (as when the attacker has access to the decryption, for example DVD players for watermarking, or decrypting of a message encrypted with a public key) • Rubber-hose (Physical threat to key-holder) CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  12. Caesar cipher; key = 3 or D ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ defghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabc E(A) =d; Key = 3 (or Key = d) E(M) = M3 mod 26 D(c) = c-3 mod 26 EKey(symbol) = symbolKey mod alphabet size Dkey(symbol) = symbol - Key mod alphabet size CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  13. Shift cipher - cryptanalysis Decrypt (encrypted with a shift cipher): Beeakfydjxuqyhyjiqryhtyjiqfbqduyjiikfuhcqd • Deciphering exactly one symbol in the ciphertext is enough to break the cipher. Serious weakness. • Can decipher by targeting specific statistical properties of the language of the message – for example, single-lettered words in english can only be “a” or “I” • Can decipher easily by brute-force, need to try only 26 keys. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  14. Shift cipher – weaknesses and strengths • Strengths: • Computationally efficient to encrypt and decrypt • No storage requirements • Ciphertext not longer than plaintext • Weaknesses: • Vulnerable to brute force: a given ciphertext can correspond to only 26 messages (or messages equal to the length of the alphabet) • Even more vulnerable when the language has statistical properties, because some keys will be quickly apparent as unlikely/impossible given ciphertext CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  15. Shift cipher - Lessons learnt • Need cipher that takes more keys than length of language alphabet, so brute force is more difficult • Key should not be determinable from decrypting a single symbol • How about two variables in the key, not 1? CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  16. Affine cipher - definition e(x) = ax + b mod m d(y) = a-1(y-b) mod m Is this possible for all a? Try on example: m = 6. Find a-1 for all a  Zm CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  17. GCD: definition The gcd (Greatest Common Divisor) of two integers m and n denoted gcd(m, n) is the largest non-negative integer that divides both m and n. In other words it is the unique positive integer x that satisfies: y|m and y|n  y|x  y CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  18. Affine Cipher P = C = Zm K = {(a, b)  Zm X Zm gcd(a, m) =1} eK(x) = (ax+b) mod m dK(y) = a-1(y-b) mod m CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  19. Affine cipher examples Encrypt firstletstrythekasiskitest Using key: CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  20. Complexity of attacks Brute Force attack for alphabet of size n How difficult is it to break this? How many possible keys? m2? m? CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  21. Vigenère Cipher Ek: Zmn Zmn v  v + k mod m Long strings of letters k, such as lines from poems. Example. No index of coincidence. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  22. Permutation Cipher Encrypt: canwegohomenow CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  23. Definition: Permutation Cipher P = C = (Zm)n K = { |  a permutation of {1, 2, ….n}} e (x1, x2,…xn) = (x (1), x (2),…x (n)) d (x1, x2,…xn) = (x -1(1), x  -1(2),…x  -1(n)) CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  24. Special Permutation Cipherperhaps the oldest known cipher classisboringtoday ciidlsnaabgysotrsrox What was the permutation? History CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  25. How about a cipher with many, many possible keys?

  26. How about using many, many keys? ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ cjmzuvywrdbunjoxaeslptfghi Different key for each letter in the alphabet? A letter goes to another one. Each time a letter appears in the message it encrypts to the same letter in the ciphertext CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  27. Substitution cipher P = C = Zm K = all permutations ofZm e(x) = (x) d(y) = -1(y) The key is the table: 26! Keys Brute force could be expensive CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  28. Substitution cipher - cryptanalysis lxr rwq zoazqgr sfuqb bqabq virw gxlkiz uqnb, vwqjq ir bIsgkn sqfab fggkniay rwq gjicfrq rjfabmojsfrioa mijbr fad rwqa rwq gxlkiz oaq. wq wfcq aorqd rwfr f sfeoj gjolkqs virw gjicfrq uqnb ib rwq bwqqj axslqj om uqnb f biaykq xbqj wfb ro brojq fad rjfzu. virw gxlkiz uqnb, oakn rvo uqnb fjq aqqdqd gqj xbqj: oaq gxlkiz fad oaq gjicfrq. Kqr xb bqq vwfr dimmejqazq rwib sfuqb ia rwq axslqj om uqnb aqqdqd. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  29. a 22 b 24 c 4 d 9 e 2 f 21 g 13 h i 20 j 16 k 10 l 8 m 6 n 9 o 15 p q 51 r 28 s 9 t u 9 v 7 w 16 x 10 y 2 z 8 Substitution cipher - cryptanalysis CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  30. English (every 1000) E 127 T 91 A 82 O 75 I 70 N 67 S 63 H 61 R 60 D 43 L 40 C 28 Ciphertext q 51 r 28 b 24 a 22 f 21 i 20 j 16 w 16 o 15 g 13 x 10 k 10 d 9 From Stinson Frequency of occurence u 9 n 9 s 9 l 8 z 8 v 7 m 6 c 4 e 2 y 2 h 0 t 0 p 0 U 28 M 24 W 23 F 22 G 20 Y 20 P 19 B 15 V 10 K 8 J 2 Q 1 X 1 Z 1 CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  31. q = E lxr rwE zoazEgr sfuEb bEabE virw gxlkiz uEnb, vwEjE ir bIsgkn sEfab fggkniay rwE gjicfrE rjfabmojsfrioa mijbr fad rwEa rwE gxlkiz oaE. vE wfcE aorEd rwfr f sfeoj gjolkEs virw gjicfrE uEnb ib rwE bwEEj axslEj om uEnb f biaykE xbEj wfb ro brojE fad rjfzu. virw gxlkiz uEnb oakn rvo uEnb fjE aEEdEd gEj xbEj: oaE gxlkiz fad oaE gjicfrE. kEr xb bEE vwfr dimmejEazE rwib sfuEb ia rwE axslEj om uEnb aEEdEd. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  32. Digram TH HE IN ER AN RE ED ON ES ST EN AT Trigram THE ING AND HER ERE ENT THA NTH WAS ETH FOR DTH From Stinson Digram/Trigram occurence TO NT HA ND OU EA NG AS OR TI IS ET IT AR TE SE HI OF CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  33. q = E lxr rwE zoazEgr sfuEb bEabE virw gxlkiz uEnb vwEjE ir bIsgkn sEfab fggkniay rwE gjicfrE rjfabmojsfrioa mijbr fad rwEarwE gxlkiz oaE. vE wfcE aorEd rwfr f sfeoj gjolkEs virw gjicfrE uEnb ib rwE bwEEj axslEj om uEnb f biaykE xbEj wfb ro brojE fad rjfzu. Virw gxlkiz uEnb, oakn rvo uEnb fjE aEEdEd gEj xbEj: oaE gxlkiz fad oaE gjicfrE. kEr xb bEE vwfr dimmejEazE rwib sfuEb ia rwE axslEj om uEnb aEEdEd. En 6 Ej 6 Ed 5 Ea 2 Eb 2 Er 1 Ef 1 Es 1 Eg 1 ER ED ES EN EA ET uE 8 wE 8 aE 5 bE 5 rE 4 kE 3 jE 3 dE 2 zE 2 gE 1 vE 1 cE lE 1 sE 1 HE RE TE SE TAOI NSHRD r b af i j wogxkd j=R; d = D; b or a = S; w = H; CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  34. q = E; j=R; w=H; d=D lxr rHE zoazEgr sfuEb bEabE virH gxlkiz uEnb vHERE ir bIsgkn sEfab fggkniay rHE gRicfrE rRfabmoRsfrioa miRbr fad rHEarHE gxlkiz oaE. vE HfcE aorEd rHfr f sfeoR gRolkEs virH gjicfrE uEnb ib rHE bHEER axslER om uEnb f biaykE xbER Hfb ro broRE fad rRfzu. HirH gxlkiz uEnb, oakn rvo uEnb fRE aEEdEd gER xbER: oaE gxlkiz fad oaE gRicfrE. kEr xb bEE vHfr dimmeREazE rHib sfuEb ia rHE axslER om uEnb aEEdEd. TAOI NS r b af i og r = T CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  35. q = E; j=R; w=H; r=T; d=D lxT THE zONzEgr MAuES SENSE WITH gxlkIz uEnS WHERE IT SIMgkn MEANS AggknINy THE gRIcATE TRANSFORMATION FIRST AND THEN THE gxlkIz ONE. WE HAVE NOTED THAT A MAJOR PROlkEM WITH PRIVATE uEnS IS THE SHEER NxMlER OF uEnS A SIaykE xSER HAS TOSTORE AND TRAzu. WITH gxlkIz uEnS, ONkn TWO uEnS ARE NEEDED gER xSER: ONE PxlkIz AND ONE PRIVATE. kET xS SEE WHAT DImmeRENzE THIS sAuESIN THE NxBlER OF uEnS NEEDED. O NS b a og v=W; i=I; f=A; b=S; o=O; m=F; a=N; s=M; c=V; g=P; e=J; CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  36. Substitution cipher - cryptanalysis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z f l z d q m y w i e u k s a o g t j b r x c v h n p BUT THE CONCEPT MAKES SENSE WITH PUBLIC KEYS WHERE IT SIMPLY MEANS APPLYING THE PRIVATE TRANSFORMATION FIRST AND THEN THE PUBLIC ONE. WE HAVE NOTED THAT A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH PRIVATE KEYS IS THE SHEER NUMBER OF KEYS A SINGLE USER HAS TO STORE AND TRACK. WITH PUBLIC KEYS ONLY TWO KEYS ARE NEEDED PER USER ONE PUBLIC AND ONE PRIVATE. LET US SEE WHAT DIFFERENCE THIS MAKES IN THE NUMBER OF KEYS NEEDED. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  37. Substitution cipher – cryptanalysis algorithm • Look for “a”/”I” • Compute frequency of single letters; compare to that of English • Compute frequency of digrams, compare to that of English • Compute frequency of trigrams, compare to that of English • Etc. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  38. Substitution cipher – strengths and weaknesses • Strengths: • Not vulnerable to brute force attacks • Encryption and decryption requires low computational overhead, though more than Shift cipher • Ciphertext not longer than plaintext • Weaknesses: • Vulnerable to statistical attack if language/message has statistical structure • Requires storage of key table CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  39. Substitution cipher – lessons learnt • In spite of 26! possible keys, can break, because of structure of message • Can we make message without statistical structure? • Examples? Images in well-compressed form. What about zip files? CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  40. Perfect Cipher One time pad Example over English alphabet Example over binary alphabet Perfect because, after knowing ciphertext, a random guess is as good as any other. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  41. Doesn’t need a computer CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  42. Doesn’t need a computer CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  43. Doesn’t need a computer CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  44. Basic Pixels(from Douglas Stinson’s website) CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  45. What about biased one-time pad Suppose the probability of a 0 in the key is p. Is the one-time pad perfectly secret? CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers

  46. One-time pad inefficient Need to get the entire key secretly to the message receiver Need a cryptosystem where managing keys is easier. CS283-172/Fall08/GWU/Vora Classical Ciphers