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# More About Syllogisms

More About Syllogisms. The quantifiers, causes, and validity of Syllogisms. Quantifiers. We have already learned about the universal affirmative . a = All S are P Example: All humans are mortal. As we discussed last week, there are three more. Quantifiers. The Universal Negative:

## More About Syllogisms

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1. More About Syllogisms The quantifiers, causes, and validity of Syllogisms

2. Quantifiers • We have already learned about the universal affirmative. • a = All S are P • Example: All humans are mortal. • As we discussed last week, there are three more.

3. Quantifiers • The Universal Negative: • e = No S are P • Example: No humans are perfect. • The Particular Affirmative • i = Some S are P • Example: Some humans are healthy. • The Particular Negative • o = Some S are not P • Example: Some humans are not clever.

4. Types of Causes • According to Aristotle there are four fundamental types of causes which answer the question “why?” • (1.) – Material Cause: Determined by the material which things are made of. • Because S is made of M

5. Types of Cause: Material • Example of the material cause in a syllogism: • Why can all men breathe? • Because everything with lungs can breathe • And because all men have lungs • Thus, all men can breathe

6. Types of Causes: Formal • (2.) Formal Cause: This is determined by the arrangement, shape, or appearance of something. • Because S is an M • Example: “Why can all men breathe?” Because all mammals can breathe And because all men are mammals Thus, all men can breathe.

7. Types of Causes: Efficient • (3.) Efficient Cause: Determined by something apart from the thing being changed. • Because S is moved by M • Example: “Why can all men breathe?” Because everything that inhales and exhales can breathe And because all men can inhale and exhale Thus, all men can breathe

8. Types of Causes: Final • (4.) Final Cause: Determined by the aim or purpose being served by the thing. • Because S is for M • Example: “Why can all men breathe?” Because all that must live on earth can breathe And because all men are for life on earth Thus, all men can breathe

9. Types of Causes: Practice • Why can humans be religious? • Proof by: • Material Cause: • Because all spiritual souls can be religious • Formal Cause: • Because all that is in God’s image can be religious • Efficient Cause: • Because all that God attracts can be religious • Final Cause: • Because all that is for God can be religious

10. Proof by the Effects • Because the effect of S is M • Example: “Why can all men breathe?” Because what rejects water and CO2 can breathe And because all men reject water and CO2 Thus, all men can breathe

11. Validity of Syllogisms • No valid conclusion can come from two negative premises: No Muslims are Jews. No Christians are Muslims. Therefore Christians are Jews?!

12. Validity of Syllogisms • No valid conclusion can come from two particular premises: Because some Americans are human And because some Americans are saints Thus, some saints are human…

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