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TIME/ TENSE SYSTEM OF THE ENGLISH VERB. Present Simple. is used:. e.g. :. For permanent states, repeated actions and daily routines. For laws of nature. For timetables (planes, trains) and programmes. For sport commentaries, reviews, narration. To give instructions or directions.

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  2. Present Simple is used: e.g. : • For permanent states, repeated actions and daily routines. • For laws of nature. • For timetables (planes, trains) and programmes. • For sport commentaries, reviews, narration. • To give instructions or directions. • I visit my parents every weekend. • The sun sets in the west. • He arrives by train tomorrow. • Tom overtakes Peter and wins the race. He gets up, opens the window and whistles for his dog. 5. You sprinkle some cheese on pizza and then bake it.

  3. Present Progressive is used: e.g.: • For actions taking place at the moment of speaking. • For temporary actions. • To express annoyance, irritation or anger with such words as: always, constantly. • For actions that we have already arranged and have done something for it to be. • For developing situations. !!! Progressive is not used with state verbs: like, love, enjoy, prefer, adore, see, hear, look, sound, smell, taste, know, believe, forget, notice, realise, remember, • They are talking. • I’m living in Nizhnevartovsk. • You are always being late for lessons. 4. I’m having a party next Saturday.Will you come? 5. Your language is improving. understand, think, seem, expect = think, see = understand, be, contain, consist, include, belong, fit, need, own, owe, want, have, mean.

  4. Some of the verbs are used in Present Progressive when they are describing actions. • I think he is lying. • I’m thinking of buying a car. • The food tastes delicious. • He is tasting the soup. • It smells nice. • She is smelling the flowers. • I see you well. • I’m seeing the teacher tomorrow. • It looks as if they’ve finished the work. • Mike is looking out of the window. • The baby’s hair feels like silk. • She is feeling the radiator.

  5. He has got a BMW. • He is having a shower. • The chicken weighs two kilos. • The butcher is weighing the meat. • The dress fits you well. • My Dad is fitting the new lock. • He appears to be a good guy. • She is appearing in a new play. • He is a rude man. • He is being so rude today. • I enjoy it very much. I’m enjoying the party a lot. • !!! Look, feel, hurt=ache no difference both Present Simple and progressive are used.

  6. Dear Karen, I (to have) a great time here in England. My university term (not to start) until autumn, so I (to take) the opportunity to improve my English. I (to stay) with some English friends who (to own) a farm. On weekdays I (to catch) a bus into Torquay to go to language classes. I (to make) a good progress, I think. My friends (to say) my pronunciation is much better than when I arrived, and I (to understand) almost everything now. At weekends I (to help) on the farm. At the moment they (to harvest) the corn and they (to need) all the help they can get. It’s quite hard work, but I (to like) it. And I (to develop) some strong muscles! You (to come) to visit me at Christmas? I (to spend) the winter holiday here at the farm. My friends (to want) to meet you and there’s plenty of space. But you must bring your warm clothes. It (to get) very cold here in winter. Let me know as soon as you (to decide). And tell me what you (to do) these days. Do you miss me? Love, Paul.

  7. PresentPerfect is used: e.g. : • The action has happened and we don’t know when. • The action has the result visible in the present. There is a connection between the action and the moment of speaking. • When the action happened is not important. We are interested in the result. • With the expression “This is the second time…” • To give new information. (When we ask for more information or give details we use Past Simple). • We use Past Simple for well known facts. • We use : so far, since, for, never, ever, just, before, already, yet, this week, today, lately, recently. • The action can be repeated. • He has come. • She has washed her hair. • They have bought a new BMW. • This the first time I have ridden a horse. • He has fallen off the ladder. When did it happen? • The Chinese invented printing. • I’ve typed four reports so far. • He has won seven medals.

  8. Present Perfect Progressive is used: e.g.: • For an action which started in the past and continues up till now. • For an action which was in the progress before the moment of speaking. • To express anger, irritation or annoyance. • I’ve been living here for twenty five years now. • She has been walking. Her feet hurt. • Somebody has been using my hair dryer.

  9. John is terribly upset. He (to break) off his engagements to Megan. • I understood Swedish when I was a child, but (I /to forget) it all. • What’s the dent in your car? (you to have ) an accident? • I’m sorry, (he/to go) to the dentist. • The cassette recorder is broken. (you/to play) about with it? • Your Italian is very good. (you /to study) it long? • I’m not surprised (he/to fail) the exam. (he/not to work) hard recently. • Oh, no. (the children/to cook). Look at the state of the kitchen. • How many times (Wendy/to be) late for work this week? • I’m going to give this cat some food. (it/to sit) on the doorsteps for hours. I’m sure it’s starving. • (I/to do) grammar exercises all morning. I deserve a treat. For lunch. • Now where are my keys? This is the 3d time (I/to lose) them today.

  10. Put the verbs into the correct Present forms.1. Linda (to learn) to drive at the moment.2. Has Alan got a job?- Oh, yes. He (to be) the manager of a leisure center.3. I (to write) a report for tomorrow’s meeting.4. I (to type) six reports so far this morning.5. He ( to plant) flowers all afternoon.6. She (to write) twenty novels so far.7. You look happy. – Yes. I (to hear) the news.8. What time the play (to start) tomorrow?9. Are you new to this company? – In fact, I (to work) here for almost two years.10. I (to practice) for weeks.11. I (to go) swimming three times a week.12. Where you (to be) today?13. I (to be) to the cinema.14. I never ( to be) to India.15. Where are the children?- They ( to go) to the park to play football.16. I (to see) Andy this evening.17. How much (to weigh) the bag of apples?

  11. Past Simple is used: e.g.: • For actions that happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated. The action is completed. The action can’t be repeated. • For actions that happened one after another. • For past habits or states that are now finished. (used to) • They went camping in summer. • He came, took off his coat and went upstairs. • We were very friendly in our childhood.

  12. Past Simple and Present Perfect I (to see) this film before. Me too. The actor (to play) a lot of good roles already. When you (to meet) him? I think Van Gogh (to paint) the most beautiful pictures ever. When you (to hear) from him last? He (to live) next door to me for three years, but he (to move) away last June and I (not to see) him since. He (to forget) his French since he (to leave) Paris. Years ago he (to be) very poor and (not to know) how to live. He (to become) very rich now. He is a man who (to live) a remarkable life. It’s the most delicious cake I ever (to taste). – When and where you (to buy) it? He cannot see well as he (to become) short-sighted. You (to hear) from him lately? What you (to do) last night? When you (to get) this wonderful ring? – I don’t remember. I (to have) it for years. How’s Jack? When you (to see) him? Simon Cook (to paint) a lot of beautiful pictures. He is a great athlete. He (to win) several medals. He is in good form, you know. I (to write) two letters this morning.

  13. Past Progressive is used: e.g: • For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. • For an action which was in progress when another action interrupted. • For two or more simultaneous actions. • To describe the atmosphere, setting in the introduction to a story before we describe the main events. • We were going home at 5 in the evening. • We were going home when the rain started. • She was talking оver her mobile while she was driving home. • One beautiful autumn afternoon, Tom was strolling down a quiet country lane. The birds were singing and the leaves were rustling in the breeze.

  14. Past Simple and Past Progressive Contrasted I (to sit) on the sofa for an hour then (to begin) reading. You (to see) him in the morning? –Yes, he (stand) in the hall talking to friends. The sun (to shine), the birds (to sing) as Mike (to drive) down the country lane. He (to smile) as he (to look forward) to the journey ahead. Mike (to enjoy) driving. Suddenly the engine (to begin) to make a strange noise. The car (to stop) in the middle of the road. Mike (to try) to start but nothing (to happen). He (to sigh), then (to get) out of the car. As he (to push) the car along the road he (to start) to wish he had stayed at home. Mike (to enter) his flat and (to close) the door. He (to hang) his coat when he (to hear) a strange noise. He (to take) a deep breath and (to turn) around. Someone (to stand) in the doorway.

  15. Past Perfect is used: e.g: • For an action which happened before another action. • For an action that happened before a stated time. • Hardly…when, no sooner…than. 4. After “before” in subordinate clause (еще прежде чем = успел). 5. After “till/ until • She had finished work before her friend phoned. • She had done it by 6 o’clock. • Hardly had they got home when the rain started. • The manager returned before the typist had typed all the documents. • They stood on the shore until the ship disappeared.

  16. Past Simple/ Past Perfect/ Past Progressive/ Past Perfect Progressive What you (to do) at two this morning? Graham wrote a book about the plants he (to see ) while he (to wander) throught the woods. Maggie took a bath because she (to work) in the garden all afternoon. Greta boasted that her boss (to give) her an extra half hour for lunch because she (to work) hard all morning. Patrice's mother told him off when he came home very late because she (to worry) about him all evening. Bruce went to hospital because he( to cut) his hand while he (to try) to mend a broken window. I was very pleased when my son found my watch because we (to look) for it for hours. Mary (to meet) her husband while she( to work) in the States. The government (to provide) much more help for the disabled people then they do now. The only time I ever (to ride) a horse I (to fall) off in the first five minutes. I was too angry with him as I (to wait) for a long time outside and (to be ) very cold. When we (to arrive) we realized that the hotel manager (to reserve) the wrong room. It (to be) very small.

  17. Past Perfect Progressive is used: e.g.: • For an action which started and finished in the past before another past action.. • For an action which was in the progress before the moment of speaking. • I’d been living there for twenty five years before they arrived. • She had been walking. Her feet hurt.

  18. Future simple is used: e.g.: • For on- the -spot decisions. • For predictions. • For promises, threats, warnings, requests, hopes, offers. • For actions which will definitely happen in the future and we can’t control. • I’ll give it to you. • I’m afraid he’ll be late. • I’ll explain it to you later. • The temperature will reach 40 degrees Celsius tomorrow.

  19. TO BE GOING TO DO smth For plans, intentions, ambitions. For actions we have already decided but haven’t yet arranged anything . In predictions when there is evidence that something will happen in the near future. I’m going to become a famous artist some day. They are going to get married in three months. Look at the clouds, it is going to rain.

  20. Future Progressive is used: e.g.: • For an action that will be in progress at a stated future time. • For an action that will definitely happen as the result of an arrangement. • When we ask politely about someone's plans for the near future. • This time next week I’ll be cruising round the islands. • Don’t call Julie I’ll be seeing her later.. • Will you be using the photocopier?

  21. Future Progressive is used: e.g.: • For an action which will be in progress at a stated time. • For an action which will definitely happen as the result of an arrangement. • When we ask politely about someone's plans ( we want to know if our wishes fit in with their plans) • For predictions. • We’ll be cruising this time next week. • Don’t phone Lily I’ll be seeing her later. • Will you be using the computer for long? I need it. • She will be sleeping, I’m sure.

  22. Future Perfect is used: e.g.: • For an action which will be finished before a stated future time. • For an action which will be finished before another future action. • She will have delivered all the documents by 8 o’clock. • I will have come by the time you finish.

  23. Future Perfect Progressive is used: e.g.: • To emphasize the duration of an action up to a certain time in the future. • By the end of the year she will have been teaching for 30 years. • By the time they reach New York they will have been traveling for 4 hours.

  24. Future Simple/ be going to Have you finished your essay? – No, but I’m sure I (to finish) it on time. I have decided what to wear for the party. – Really? What (you/wear), then? Why do you need hot soapy water? – Because I (to wash) the car. Did you post those letters? – No, I forgot. I (to post) them this afternoon. Did you book a table at the restaurant? – Yes, but I don’t expect it (to be) busy. I’m hungry. – Me too. I (to make) us something to eat. What are you doing this weekend? – Oh, I (probably/visit) my Granny. Look at the dog. – Oh, yes. It (to swim) across the river. Are you going to town today? –Yes. - I (to give) you a lift if you like. Your shirt is dirty. – Oh, dear, I (to change) into another one. I (to hope) we (not/to arrive) late for the meeting. Tony is nearly eighteen, isn’t he? – Yes. He (to work) for his father when he leaves school.

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