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Islam as a political force. Relative importance Most significant social organization outside of the family is through Islamic institutions Islamic institutions include: mosque (Friday sermon); religious schools (madrasas) Key concepts in political Islam Role of the Qur’an Apostasy Shari’a

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islam as a political force
Islam as a political force
  • Relative importance
    • Most significant social organization outside of the family is through Islamic institutions
    • Islamic institutions include: mosque (Friday sermon); religious schools (madrasas)
  • Key concepts in political Islam
    • Role of the Qur’an
    • Apostasy
    • Shari’a
    • Jihad
    • Hakamiyya
    • Importance of piety, social justice, and order
  • Why does Islam become politicized?
    • Religious view
    • Protest view
    • Institutional view
manifestations of political islam
Manifestations of political Islam
  • Early developments
    • Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
    • Key ideologue: Sayyid Qutb
    • States often supported Islamists
  • Key events
    • Arab defeat in 1967
    • Iranian revolution in 1979
    • Assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981
    • War against the Soviets in Afghanistan
    • Sudanese formulation of an Islamic state in late 1990s
    • Attack in New York and DC in 2001
    • Iraq as the new Afghanistan
  • Welfare and social service provision
    • Education, scholarships, food, sanitation
  • As a protest movement
    • Key leaders of street protests against regimes
    • Use of cassettes/Friday sermon; headscarf as a political symbol
  • As political violence
    • Assassination of government officials, judges, intellectuals; killing tourists (Egypt)
    • Suicide bombings of police/military (esp. Palestine/Lebanon/Iraq)
islamists and the state
Islamists and the state
  • The Islamist threat
    • State-led Islamism vs. opposition Islamisms
    • Islamists as a competitor to the state
    • Attempts to co-opt Islamic institutions
    • Why are Islamists considered a threat to the state?
  • Participatory Islamist movements
    • Formation of Islamic political parties where available
    • Strategic decisions about participation vs. opposition
    • Increasing numbers of participatory movements
    • What are the effects of participation on Islamist movements?
  • Splits in Islamist movements
    • Movements often split over whether or not participation is the right way to go
    • Is Islamism on the rise or in decline?
waves of liberal reform
Waves of liberal reform
  • Economic liberalization vs. political liberalization
    • Liberal economic experiments were started in the late 1970s and 1980s
    • Can you economically liberalize without political liberalization?
  • Characteristics of liberal reform
    • Reconvening old national assemblies
    • Increasing the number of people who can vote
    • Letting up on the media
    • Allowing for freedom to organize and legalizing parties
  • Wave 1: 1985-1992
    • Characteristics
    • Examples
  • Closing down of reform projects by the mid-1990s
    • Reasons
    • Examples
  • Wave 2: 1999-2005
    • Characteristics
    • Examples
  • How has the Iraqi example affected broader trends in democracy in Wave 2?
why reform
Why reform?
  • Reform as a response to protest
    • Diversion theory: liberal reform protects the state from popular pressures
  • Reform as a response to international pressures
    • International pressure matters, but it can be dealt with without serious costs
  • Reform as a tool to divide and manage the opposition
    • Split or discredit the opposition to make them weaker
  • The emergence of young dynastic leaders
    • Their opportunity for reform
    • Constraints on their reform efforts
the limits to reform
The limits to reform
    • When reform becomes too risky
      • Importance of democratizing examples
  • Electoral rules as a tool to limit the opposition
      • Design a system that effectively constrains the opposition
  • Institutional powers as a tool to limit the opposition
      • Design constraints on parliamentary authority
    • Islam as a constraining factor
      • Major opposition groups are usually Islamist in character, but their commitment to democratic turnover is sometimes open to question
    • Under-institutionalized states with no horizontal accountability
      • State power tends to be centralized, with little horizontal accountability
      • Vertical accountability would not effectively reign in new leaders
lecture terms
Lecture terms

Shari’a

Madrasa

Ulema

Jihad

Shura

Muslim Brotherhood

SayyidQutb

Crisis-based reform

Generational reform

1991 Algerian elections

Electoral management

Arab Spring

Mohammed Bouazizi

Zine el Abidine Ben Ali

Hosni Mubarak

Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF)

Tahrir square

Al-Nahda

Freedom and Justice Party

Al-Nour party