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New Deal. Franklin Roosevelt’s Presidency. Election of 1932. Election of 1932 saw many changes: Democrats took control of Congress – Republicans lose a great deal of popular support Presidential election – saw the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt

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New deal

New Deal

Franklin Roosevelt’s Presidency

Election of 1932
Election of 1932

  • Election of 1932 saw many changes:

    • Democrats took control of Congress – Republicans lose a great deal of popular support

    • Presidential election – saw the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt

      • Americans wanted a change – they were in need, and wanted a change from this hands off ideology of Herbert Hoover

  • Roosevelt’s plan – he put forward ideas focused on:

    • Relief for the poor

    • New Public works programs – government funded building programs

  • Roosevelt won election in landslide

Roosevelt s philosophy
Roosevelt’s Philosophy

  • Roosevelt had a great personality for rallying the country.

    • He was handicapped with polio, but he did not let it slow him down – he worked through his struggles

      • This was symbolic for the struggling nation

    • Used fireside chats – way for Roosevelt to address the nation in a comfortable way to try to ease fear and uneasiness

    • He believed in the government’s role to help its people

  • Eleanor Roosevelt – President’s wife who worked hard to support her husband and help support the nation

    • Wrote newspaper articles

    • Started an anti-lynching campaign – stopped it

Roosevelt s work to stop the depression
Roosevelt’s Work to Stop the Depression

  • Step 1 – Stop the banking crisis

    • Temporarily closed all banks – bank holiday

    • Passed Emergency Banking Act – checked security of bank

    • Reopened banks with government assurances – gave confidence to people and banks

    • Glass-Steagall Act – created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to guarantee loans.

Roosevelt s work to stop the depression1
Roosevelt’s Work to Stop the Depression

  • Step 2 – The Hundred Days – enacting the New Deal

    • Hundred Days – the first days of his presidency where FDR had to stop the down turn of the economy by changing the view of the people

    • New Deal – policy to change the country – 3 goals

      • Relief for the suffering

      • Recovery of the economy

      • Reforms to prevent another serious crisis of the economy

Reforms of the first hundred days
Reforms of the First Hundred Days

  • Major programs key in the New Deal

    • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) – gave subsidies to farmers for relief

    • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) – businesses in the same industry need to cooperate with each other and provided $3.3 billion in public works aid

    • Public Works Administration (PWA) – managed all Public Works programs

    • Federal Securities Act – forced companies to share financial information with the public to restore confidence in economy

    • Security Exchange Commission (SEC) – watchdog for stock market

    • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – developed resources of the Tennessee River Valley – built dams and other things

Other works after first 100 days
Other Works After First 100 Days

Civil Works Administration (CWA) – provided winter employment for 4 million people – built highways sewers, airports, and more.

Indian Reorganization Act (1934) – limited sale of Indian lands and provided them assistance

New deal issues
New Deal Issues

  • Government seen as invading businesses and personal life – government is too big

  • Others believed it had done enough – overhaul capitalism

  • Conservatives felt that the New Deal was too much of a break with traditional American ideals.

    • Huey Long

    • Charles Coughlin

    • Francis Townsend

  • Courts had issues with many programs – stopped some

Recovery continues
Recovery Continues

  • Second Hundred Days – A Second New Deal

    • Extended much of the government programs already in place

    • Wanted people to get back to work – ended many handouts

      • Emergency Relief Appropriations Act

    • Social Security Act – created Social Security Program which provided guaranteed pensions for those over 65.

      • Funding for this program was an issue – made only some workers pay

Organized labor revived
Organized Labor Revived

  • Wagner Act – outlawed many anti-labor practices

    • Created National Labor Relations Board – allowed voting in workplaces for union representation

  • CIO is created – created union for many unskilled workers

    • Those not protected by AFL

  • Union power shown in sit down strike of GM Automotive

Roosevelt re elected
Roosevelt Re-Elected

  • Won in 1936 – no real struggle

    • Republicans attacked New Deal as being a big government idea and expanding power of government into personal life

  • Events following re-election:

    • Court-packing issue – tried to get justices on Supreme Court who would defend New Deal initiatives

      • Created a fight in Congress

    • Created Farm Tenancy Act – aid to tenant farmers (poorest)

    • Social Security Plan passed by Supreme Court (1937)

    • Second dip in economy – forces Roosevelt to deficit spend to save recovery – saved in 1938

Life during depression
Life During Depression

  • Women started to serve more roles in government

  • African Americans were appointed by Roosevelt to positions of power

    • Creation of Black Cabinet – Mary McLeod Bethune was leader

  • Artists showed the hardships of Depression

    • Dorothea Lange – took pictures of the people in Depression

    • John Steinbeck – author of Grapes of Wrath – about Dust Bowl

    • Woody Guthrie – wrote music about Depression

    • James Agee/Walker Evans – worked to show lives of sharecroppers

Entertainment of the depression
Entertainment of the Depression

  • Works by great writers of the time turned into movies

    • Grapes of Wrath

  • Movies also dealt with other issues of the Depression

  • Comedy and Dance movies were very popular – feel good movies

  • Radio was also big during this time

    • Roosevelt’s fireside chats and other public rants

    • Had music, sports, religious themes

      • Baseball, College Football, and Boxing were major sports

      • New music was popularized – Swing – big band jazz

Impact of new deal
Impact of New Deal

  • Look at the 3 Goals

    • Relief – put money in pockets of poor

    • Recovery – started to turn but failed when crisis of 1937 and 1938 hit

    • Reforms – were successful and long lasting

  • Was responsible for the construction of many highways, bridges, dams, and public buildings

  • Created a link between the people and the government

    • But created bigger government to control all the new programs

    • People saw their government as something that helped them now

Limits of new deal
Limits of New Deal

  • Programs were never meant to be a way to end all the hardships but a way to pull the country out of hardship

    • Programs were kept around too long

  • Pay was limited to government workers – wanted them to find other employment not stay on government dime

  • There was varied aid to people based on state

  • Programs permitted discrimination against African-Americans

End of new deal
End of New Deal

  • Ended by 1938 – downturn of economy was final blow

  • Roosevelt lost support because:

    • Other government officials wanted balanced budget and tax cuts

    • Saw reorganization plan for Executive Branch as a way to give the president too much power

  • Fair Labor Standards Act – law that established minimum wage and required time and half wage for overtime

Election of 1938
Election of 1938

  • Roosevelt wanted to defeat all of his New Deal opponents, but this failed and the Senate became filled with those who opposed his plans

  • New focus after election:

    • Europe saw rise of radical dictators because of depression, and they were on the brink of war.

    • America began to open more industry to create weapons of war

    • World War II was rapidly approaching