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Climate change and human health: Public health threats and opportunities. Carlos Corvalan PAHO / WHO Brasilia. Environment and health Climate change and health Action where is needed An agenda for Action.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Climate change and human health:

Public health threats and opportunities

Carlos Corvalan

PAHO / WHO

Brasilia

slide4

Environment-society-individual interaction on health

Causes of the causes

Desertification

Transport

Energy

Proximal causes

Radiation

Chemicals

Air pollution

Climate change

Health

Degraded ecosystems

etc.

Vector breeding sites

Water,

sanitation

Water scarcity

Trade

Migration

Social factors not related to environment

Genetic factors

slide5

Cardiovasc. diseases

Breast cancer

Diabetes

Respiratory infections

Lung cancer

Respiratory diseases

COPD

Cardiovasc. diseases

Injuries

Diarrhoea

Malaria

Malaria

Injuries

Dengue

Cardiovasc. diseases

etc.

Leishmaniasis

etc.

Malnutrition

Intestinal parasites

Diarrhoea

Drownings

Malnutrition

etc.

Environment-society-individual interaction on health

Causes of the causes

Physical inactivity

Desertification

Transport

Proximal causes

Radiation

Chemicals

Air pollution

Climate change

Degraded ecosystems

Health

etc.

Vector breeding sites

Water,

sanitation

Migration

Trade

Social factors not related to environment

Genetic factors

slide6

Cardiovasc. diseases

Breast cancer

Diabetes

Respiratory infections

Lung cancer

Respiratory diseases

COPD

Cardiovasc. diseases

Injuries

Diarrhoea

Malaria

Malaria

Injuries

Dengue

Cardiovasc. diseases

etc.

Leishmaniasis

etc.

Malnutrition

Intestinal parasites

Diarrhoea

Drownings

Malnutrition

etc.

Malnutrition

Environment-society-individual interaction on health

Distal causes

Malnutrition

Physical inactivity

Desertification

Transport

Proximal causes

Radiation

Chemicals

Air pollution

Climate change

Degraded ecosystems

Health

etc.

Vector breeding sites

Water,

sanitation

Migration

Trade

Malnutrition

Social factors not related to environment

Genetic factors

slide8

Snow reduction in northern hemisphere

The warming is real

Increase in atmospheric temperature

Increase in sea level

1900

2000

slide9

Migration

Energy

Transport

Climate change

Degraded ecossistems

Health

Water scarcity

Desertification

Emerging threats:

Climate change

Causes of the causes

proximal causes

Radiation

Air pollution

Chemicals

Vector breeding grounds

Water, sanitation

slide10

CLIMATE

CHANGE

The health effects of climate change

Some expected impacts will be beneficial but most will be adverse. Expectations are mainly for changes in frequency or severity of familiar health risks

  • Health effects
  • Temperature-related illness and death
  • Extreme weather- related health effects
  • Air pollution-related health effects
  • Water and food-borne diseases
  • Vector-borne and rodent- borne diseases
  • Effects of food and water shortages
  • Effects of population displacement

Based on Patz et al, 2000

slide11

CLIMATE

CHANGE

The health effects of climate change

Some expected impacts will be beneficial but most will be adverse. Expectations are mainly for changes in frequency or severity of familiar health risks

  • Health effects
  • Temperature-related illness and death
  • Extreme weather- related health effects
  • Air pollution-related health effects
  • Water and food-borne diseases
  • Vector-borne and rodent- borne diseases
  • Effects of food and water shortages
  • Effects of population displacement

Nutrition,

food

safety

Based on Patz et al, 2000

slide12

Climate change impact on health

> 150 thousand deaths per year

Burden of disease by region: Climate change and urban air pollution

Disability Adjusted Life Year per million. World Health report 2002.

Climate change Air pollution

Africa region

South-East Asia region

Eastern Mediterranean region

Latin America and Caribbean region

Western Pacific region

Developed countries

  • Cardio- pulmonary diseases
  • Respiratory infections
  • Trachea/ bronchus/ lung cancers
  • Protein-energy malnutrition
  • Diarrhoeal diseases
  • Malaria
  • Unintentional injuries
slide14

Global inequalities: Emissions of greenhouse gases

Density equalling cartogram. Countries scaled according to cumulative emissions in billion tonnes carbon equivalent in 2002. Gibbs et al

slide15

Global inequities: Health impacts of climate change

Density equalling cartogram. WHO regions scaled according to estimated mortality (per million people) in the year 2000, attributable to the climate change that occurred from 1970s to 2000. Gibbs et al

slide16

Climate change begins with…

The most important public health problems:

Food security;

Communicable diseases;

Disaster risks

Water quality and access

Disease vectors

slide17

Many of the major killers are climate sensitive

  • Each year:- Undernutrition kills 3.5 million- Diarrhoea kills 2.2 million- Malaria kills over 900 thousandEach of these is highly sensitive to temperature and precipitation
slide18

Climate change begins with…

The most vulnerable groups:

Children under 5;

Marginalized rural, urban and indigenous

Pregnant women;

Elderly people;

populations;

Displaced persons

slide19

The most vulnerable to environmental changes are the least responsible for their cause

Climate change: children are the worst affected

88% of the burden of disease attributable to climate change affects children under 5

slide20

Climate change begins with…

The most vulnerable regions:

Low food production;

High transmission of climate sensitive diseases;

Water scarcity;

Island and coastal cities

Mountain communities

slide22

Policies and Plans of Action, WHO and PAHO

World Health Assembly:

Resolution on Climate Change and Health, May 2008

PAHO Directing Council: Action Plan to protecthealth from climate change

(Review September 2008)

slide23

A strategic approach protect health

from climate change

Strengthen health systems locally and nationally to protect human health from risks related to climate change.

Evidence

Sensitization

Adaptation

Action areas:

Partnerships

Resouces

slide24

Evidence:Promote and support the generation of knowledge on health risks associated with climate change and on the response of the public health sector to this phenomenon.

  • Actions:
  • Observatory of climate and health
  • Strengthen surveillance systems
  • Support the generation of information on CC
slide25

Sensitization: Create awareness of the effects of climate change on health among both the general public and in different sectors including health sector personnel, by

  • promoting communication and dissemination of information in a multidisciplinary approach.
  • Actions:
  • Sensitize decision makers
  • Promote education, information and communication strategies
  • Guides on education and capacity building
slide26

Resources:Promote the strengthening and development of human resources,

  • financial resources, institutional development, and policy development.
  • Actions:
  • Include CC in health sector policies
  • Strengthen support to countries in environmental health capacity building
  • Mobilize resources for research, adaptation, mitigation, etc)
slide27

Partnerships:Promote, articulate and establish cross-disciplinary, interagency and intersectoral partnerships to ensure that health protection and promotion is central to

  • climate change policies.
  • Actions:
  • Mitigation policies in the health sector
  • Networks of experts
  • Evaluation of the actions in other sectors
  • Cooperation between countries
  • Collaborating centres
slide28

Adaptation:Strengthen and develop the capacity of health systems to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate adaptation measures with the aim of improving

  • response capacity to prepare for and effectively respond to the risks of climate change.
  • Actions:
  • Evaluation of vulnerability and adaptation
  • National action plans
  • Response to emergencies: include climate change issues
slide29

Accions, from the local to the global levelAt micro levelRemove the vicious circle of daily survival:Destroy the local environment, cut down, burn, pollute,risking today to eat tomorrow.At macro levelProtect the ability of the planet to support life: water sources, ecosystems, climate. Remove the pattern of consuming today as if there was no tomorrow.

slide30

Climate Change:

The biggest global health threatof the 21st century?