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STEM THE SCIENCE OF THE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER. Brief history of the Hyperbaric Chamber in the Cayman Islands

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slide1

STEM

THE SCIENCE OF THE

HYPERBARIC CHAMBER

slide2

Brief history of the Hyperbaric Chamber in the Cayman Islands

After fundraising and generous donations by Cayman businesses, a reconditioned hyperbaric chamber was bought in the U.S. and placed in a hut behind Cayman Clinic in 1972. It was run by the British Sub-aqua Club. It is now in a room at the Hospital near the Forensic Science lab and the Morgue.

slide3

THE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER

A few years ago

slide8

THE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER

Inside looking Out

slide9

Dive Physics

THE GAS LAWS

Most Important to the Hyperbaric Chamber

Boyle’s Law

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

Henry’s Law

slide10

THE GAS LAWS - Pressure

Pressure = force per unit area

The GasLaws refer to absolute pressure (Pabs).

We are subject to a pressure at the surface because of the weight of 10 miles of air above us.

The pressure at the surface is l atmosphere (l atm).

A pressure gauge is made to read zero at the surface despite the weight of the atmosphere, and therefore reads pressure extra to the already existing atmospheric pressure. Each 33ft, or 10 meters of water, exert the same pressure as atmospheric air at sea level.

(Continued on next slide)

slide11

THE GAS LAWS - Pressure

continued

Absolute pressure refers to Gauge pressure +1 atm. ie the total pressure including atmospheric

Example

the gauge pressure 99 ft below the surface of the sea is 3 atm due to the weight of the water. However the absolute pressure is 4 atm, due to the combined effect of the water plus the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the surface of the water. Pabs = Pg+ 1 atm

slide12

THE GAS LAWS – Pressure

Compressor Room and Pressure Tanks

slide14

Pressure Units

1 atmosphere (atm) at sea level is (approximately)

= 1 kg per square cm (1 kg/cm2) (1 bar)

= 14.7 pounds per square inch (p.s.i.)

= 760mm of mercury (torr)

= 29.92in Hg

= 101,300 (Newtons per square meter) (pascals) (Pa)

= 33ft of sea water

slide15

BoylesLaw: -The volume of a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature varies inversely as the (absolute) pressure.

P x V = Constant (As the pressure goes up the volume goes down & vice-versa.)

P1 x Vl = P2 x V2

If a diver fills his lungs and then holds his breath while he ascends, the volume of his lungs will expand until either he decides to breathe out or the lungs rupture (embolism).

slide16

Depth

Pressure

Gas Volume

1 atm

Full

0’

33’

2 atm

½ full

66’

3 atm

1/3 full

99’

4 atm

¼ full

132’

5 atm

1/5 full

slide17

QUESTION

A diver ascends from 132 ft to 99ft while holding his breath.

If his lungs contained 4 litres of air at 132ft, what is the volume at 99ft?

P2xV2 = P1xV1 (Boyles Law)

V2= P1xV1 / P2 = 5atm ab x 4/ 4atm abs= 5litres

A trainee diver at 33ft shoots to the surface while holding his breath. If his lungs held 4 litres at 33 ft what is the volume at the surface.

P2xV2=P1xV1

V2=P1xV1 /P2 = 2atm x 4 / 1atm = 8 litres.

Both divers ascended 33ft, which one is most likely to suffer an embolism?

slide18

DALTONS LAW. Dalton’s Law is a concept that states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures that each gas would exert if it alone filled the container.

Air at the surface contains 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen (Including the 1% of other gases with the nitrogen).

air at the surface(1atm) = ppO2 0.21 atm +ppN2 0.79 atm

air at 33 fsw(2atm) = ppO2 0.42 atm + ppN2 l.58 atm

The importance of Daltons Law to divers and the Chamber is that the beneficial/toxic effect of gases is dependent on their partial pressures, not the total pressure of the gas mixture that contains them.

slide19

HENRY’S LAW

Henry’sLaw of solubility states that the amount of gas absorbed by a particular liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas .

E.g. If you triple the absolute pressure then the amount of gas absorbed by the liquid will be tripled. ppN in air at a pressure of 66ft of seawater = 3 x .79=2.37 atm

Therefore the divers blood would eventually contain three times the amount of nitrogen at sixty six feet than it does at the surface.

slide20

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TREATMENTS

Dive related

Arterial Gas Embolism

Decompression Sickness

Other Treatments

Wound Healing

Restoration of Circulation (Advanced Diabetes)

Skin Grafts

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

slide21

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TREATMENTS

1. Arterial Gas Embolism

Caused by over-expansion of alveolar tissue resulting from gas trapped in the lung expanding on ascent and subsequent entry of gas bubbles into the bloodstream.

slide22

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TREATMENTS

2. Decompression Sickness

Caused by rapid reduction of environmental pressure resulting in Nitrogen (previously dissolved in the body tissues) being released as bubbles in the blood stream.

slide23

TYPES OF DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

Type I DCS

Joint pain and skin bends only. Caused by the physical effects of he bubbles and immune reaction on the tissues.

slide24

TYPES OF DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

Type II DCS

Typically due to bubbles in the nerve tissue of the spinal cord or brain, causing a wide range of neurological problems.

slide25

TYPES OF DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

The Chokes

Nitrogen bubble froth in the blood in right side of heart and/or in the lungs. The heart compresses the bubbles rather than pumping the blood. Bubbles in the alveoli capillaries prevent gas exchange and result in extreme shortness of breath.

slide26

BENEFITS OF  HIGH ppO2

Normally people at sea level breathe

oxygen at a partial pressure of 0.21atm

In the hyperbaric chamber at 60ft the patient is

breathing pure oxygen at a pressure of almost 3 atm

Next 2 slides – places where higher

than normal ppO2 is available

slide27

To Combat Pressure reduction in Aircraft at Altitude

Passengers breathe pure oxygen in order to remain conscious

slide28

To Reduce Chance of Decompression Sickness

Divers can breathe nitrox,

a mixture of 32% Oxygen and 68% Nitrogen

slide29

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN

  • Pure Oxygen is used as well as pressure in hyperbaric treatments.
  • It reduces the amount of nitrogen taken into the lungs during breathing to zero, thus speeding up the release of dissolved nitrogen from the blood into the lungs.
slide30

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN

2. The high partial pressure of oxygen in the

lungs means there is far more oxygen

dissolved in the blood plasma than usual.

Despite the patient’s reduced circulation

this allows more oxygen to reach the tissues

and so promotes healing and reduces

swelling.

slide33

PROBLEMS WITH  HIGH ppO2

1. Breathing a high ppO2 for an extended

period can lead to Oxygen Toxicity – this affects the

brain and causes a convulsion similar to an epilectic fit.

In the chamber the patient is on pure oxygen for 20 minute

periods followed by a 5 minute air break.

Next slide – Table 6 – Decompression Sickness showing air

breaks

slide37

OTHER

CYLINDERS

slide38

PROBLEMS WITH  HIGH ppO2

2. The high ppO2 in the chamber is a serious fire hazard.

Oxygen sometimes leaks from patients mask, increasing

% O2 in Inner Lock

Flammable materials, including paper, avoided.

No equipment or material that could cause a spark is

allowed inside. The air supplied to chamber is very dry

so increases the risk of sparks from static electricity.

Chamber has “fire wands” and a high pressure sprinkler

system.

There is an oxygen analyzer on the exhaust air, set to

alarm when the oxygen level reaches 24%.

Next slides – fire wands. Oxygen analyzer

slide46

INTERESTED IN BEING ON

THE CHAMBER TEAM?

Call John Elliot

9161198

Or Ann Elliott

9161957

To find out when the next

training course will be offered

slide47

Divingphysics questions

1) A gauge reads a pressure of 3 atmospheres. What is the actual pressure? ……………………

2) Why must you never hold your breath as you ascend in the chamber? ______________________

3) A balloon is blown up in the chamber. What will happen to the size of this balloon when you ascend? _________________________________________

4) What will happen to the volume of the liquid in a

drinking water bottle during ascent?

slide48

The General GasLaw

A combination of Boyles Law and Charles Law leads to the General Gas Law:­

P1 xVl = P2xV2 = a constant

T1 T2

If you heat a fixed volume of gas the pressure will go up. If you leave a dive tank already filled to a high pressure out in the sun, then the pressure will rise until...

If you reduce the volume, and try to keep the temperature constant, the pressure will go up.

WHENEVER YOU USE THE GAS,LAWS YOU MUST USE ABSOLUTE PRESSURE AND KELVIN DEGREES (otherwise it won’t work!)