M A R X I S M. Benno Teschke. Marxist thought on international relations has long been established as an institutionalized field of study - however, its integration to Western canon of International Relations approaches is belated, partial and problematic.
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Marxist thought on international relations has long been established as an institutionalized field of study
- however, its integration to Western canon of International Relations approaches is belated, partial and problematic.
Interwar years: it was marginal to
After the end: unchallenged US
hegemony, deepening N-S
conflicts; led in conjunction with
the post-positivist & critical turn
during 1980 to its increasing
internal differentiation & overall
Marxist international relations presents a vibrant and rich subfield that produces some of the most trenchant challenges to mainstream international relations theory and general social science.
Never systematically addressed the question of the spatial & interspatial dimensions of social process on a universal scale.
* initial position
* implied a world-historical convergence toward a “world after Capitalism’s own image”
* progressive universalization of capitalism
* lead to: a series of social transformation in non-capitalist societies whose cumulative result was the creation of capitalist world market
* eventuate the abolition of national history and prepare the terrain for world history
-they rather imputed an automaticity to a transnationalizing process discounting domestic class conflict (resistance) & geopolitics (war)
However...Marx esp. Engels started to forsee the prospect of the national incorporation of working classes into their respective nation-states and the replacement of international class solidarity with national loyalty through warfare.
Overall...the general insight into the variability of country-specific solutions of particular social and geopolitical conflicts led to..
*a shift from the notion of “simultaneous development on a world scale
*to the empirical recognition of socio-temporally differentiated national trajectories
Marx and Engel’s interest in geopolitics remained primarily tied to the tactical consequences of alterations in world politics for communist strategy, and hence,
limited to the very perceptive but primarily ad hoc interventions, rather than governed by a sustained reflection on geopolitical and transsocietal relations for the general course of history
Constitute a more systematic and sustained to ground the challenging geopolitical dynamics and the crisis and breakdown of world order in the changing dynamics of capitalism
Transformation was conceptualized by Rudolf Hilferding (1981), Nicolai Bukharin (1972), and Vladimir Lenin (1973)
- the era of monopoly capitalism understands imperialism as permanent component of capitalism in general .
* allowing price-setting above world-market levels in home markets & controlled overseas areas.
Internationally... the quest for raw materials, the search for new export markets, & the export of capital demanded territorialisation & politico-military control of colonies
* leading to empire formation, regionalization of world market & formation of rival national blocs.
Neo-Gramscian thought- entered international relations primarily through the work of Robert Cox.
Transnationalization of a hegemonic project in turn, exercises pressures on subaltern states to align their respective composites “structures of accumulation” with those of the hegemonic state.
In contrast to realism (introduced the notion of international hegemony based on concentration of material power in one dominant state):