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An Introduction to NEVs

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  1. An Introduction to NEVs

  2. Carolina Blue Skies Project A Clean Cities Recovery Act Project of the U.S. Department of Energy Project Leads Triangle Clean Cities Coalition Triangle J Council of Governments Project Partners -Triangle Clean Cities -North Carolina Solar Center -Land of Sky Clean Vehicles Coalition -Centralina Clean Fuels Coalition -Palmetto State Clean Fuel Coalition Project funding $31,513,885 -Clean Cities: $12 million -Matching Funds: $19.5 million • Infrastructure • 6 propane fueling stations • 11 CNG fueling stations • 15 biodiesel fueling stations • 21 E85 fueling stations • 112 electric vehicle charging stations Vehicles -26 neighborhood electric vehicles ( NEVs) -43 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles -66 hybrid electric vehicles -357 propane vehicles Triangle Clean Cities Coalition

  3. What is an NEV? Vantage Crew Cab Truck A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is a street-legal, battery-powered electric vehicle . Limited to roads with posted speed limits of 35 mph (60 km/h) or less. Runs at top speed of 25 mph (40 km/h) since it is defined within a category known as “low-speed vehicles” Well-suited for use in small communities and commercial complexes, and on campuses where getting from one point to another does not require highway access. Generally: Low speed vehicles may be licensed for street use if they have all required safety equipment (windshield with wiper, lights, horn, seatbelts). They do not have all the crash safety equipment of conventional vehicles. They are easy to operate- much like other cars and trucks. They are scaled down versions of conventional vehicles

  4. Advantages of an NEV The Zebra sedan Zero tail pipe emissions Affordable transportation Supports local businesses, need to shop locally Saves money (1-3 cents a mile to operate, depending on the price of electricity per kilowatt-hour in your area) Very low-maintenance Small and maneuverable and may offer better access to worksite than a large vehicle Inexpensive insurance (about half the cost for gasoline cars)

  5. NEVs Can Be Used For • Landscape maintenance • Mail service • Maintenance • Parking enforcement • Shuttling passengers/visitors • Security/law enforcement Star Passenger Bus

  6. Current Entities Successfully Using NEVs • UNC-Charlotte (97); Chapel Hill (19); Greensboro(30); Asheville (13) ; Wilmington (1) • Cape Fear Community College (3) • East Carolina University (8) • Fayetteville State University (15) • NC A & T State University(3) • City of Asheville: Parking Enforcement (3); Central Business District Police (3); Public Works crews (1); Administration Mail Courier (1). • South Carolina Bureau of Protective Services (2) • NC Departments of: Agriculture & Consumer Services (4); Environment & Natural Resources (2); Health & Human Services (1); Transportation (1) • Great Smoky Mountains National Park (2) A CT&T E-zone. It will be manufactured in Spartanburg, SC. Currently used by Bureau of Protective Services in Columbia, SC.

  7. There are Several Top-Selling NEVs NEVs come in many shapes, styles, and configurations Gem eRide Zenn Columbia ParCar Columbia ParCar eRide GEM Miles Star Vantage ZAP Zenn

  8. Battery tips- Lead Acid Most NEV’s use batteries that look much like your car battery- they are a bit different. Realize NEW batteries may take about 12 to 15 recharges before they hold a full charge. Lead acid batteries have no recharge memory meaning you do not have to be concerned as to how often and when you recharge. It is best for battery life not to discharge fully though- keeping 30% reserve is a good practice.

  9. Batteries Need Understanding • Very high and very low temperatures may make your NEV seem sluggish. As temperature comes back to normal so will performance. • Charge in a well ventilated • area away from • sparks or flame.

  10. LOW Maintenance Does Not Mean NO Maintenance Batteries need checking now and then Standard batteries should be topped up with distilled water Some manufactures offer a system to help- for example www.trojanbattery.com/flash/Hydrolink/lowres.html “Maintenance-free” batteries should be examined for damage and corrosion

  11. Regular Maintenance Tire pressure can seriously affect range of an EV- check them regularly Remember a tagged vehicle is subject to annual state inspection Always use the parking brake- the transmission will not hold on a hill Turn it off when you get out- since there is no noise it is easy to forget! Also turn off accessories Plug in when opportunity arises

  12. Simple Controlsa GEM Dashboard FAN- Hi, off, Low switch Instrument cluster Multi-function stalk (turn signals, wiper, horn Handbrake, parking brake Light switch, behind wheel accelerator Brake pedal

  13. GEM’s Dash Controls Remember log your mileage Trip miles reset “gear" selection Wheel Lock, Start switch Defroster switch The Driver’s seat is adjustable Behind this panel are the fuse box and a master disconnect switch

  14. Starting Off Unplug it first! When you put the key in, turn the switch. You’ll discover- nothing much happens. The lit instrument cluster may be the only clue the vehicle is ON. Release the parking brake, select a gear, push the accelerator and GO. The steering is not power assisted- being in motion makes it easier to turn the steering wheel. You will use the brake, but notice how lifting off the accelerator noticeably slows the car.

  15. Rules of the Road ApplyDriving Tips Remember, it may look odd but it is a licensed vehicle: wear your seatbelt, have your license, obey the rules Claim your space in traffic, it is a small car Stay off roads with limits over 35mph. An NEV top speed is about 25mph. Be aware: pedestrians may not hear you Be sure to check with your local municipalities for any potential restrictions before purchasing an NEV.

  16. Gear Selections Some NEV’s like Vantage and e-Ride simply have forward or reverse. Others such as Mega and GEM have a "high" and "low" range. Some brands have multiple gears to accommodate loads and hills. Gear selection in an EV is silent and simple. Usually reverse has an audible warning.

  17. Things You’ll Adjust to Controls may seem simple and one switch may share functions. i.e. GEM horn is on the turn signal stalk along with the wiper control. Read the owner’s manual! Steering and brakes may be manual, not power Silent operation will startle people- be aware when approaching pedestrians or cyclists Plug in for the next time and make sure you have turned it off

  18. Tips to Extend Driving Range How far can you go? It all depends…. GEM is rated to go 30 to 35 miles between charging. Some go 50 to 60 miles. Plan ahead and don’t drain the battery dead. Operating accessories (lights, fan, defroster) will draw current and reduce range. Going fast will draw current faster, reducing range- be smooth, you’ll go further. You don’t always need to go 25 mph. Keep an eye on the green bars indicating “charge left”.

  19. NEVs Can Attract Attention Drivers should be prepared to educate the curious. Answers to sample FAQs about the NC Solar Center GEMe4: It has a 7 hp DC motor, front wheel drive, with 6 - 12 volt maintenance free batteries (under the back seat) so, it is a 72 volt system It can be used in the rain It charges on 110v (household) current and may take 8 hours to fully charge NEV’s can usually cover a work day’s travel requirements (at least 30 miles), and some go further

  20. NEVs in the U.S.-Leading the Way • NEVs are excellent choices for compact community driving and offer real value as an alternative to a full size gasoline vehicle. • NEVs (and drivers) are also ambassadors to the coming fleet of full size EVs soon to be offered in the U.S. • Every major manufacturer will be introducing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) over the next 1-3 years. Applications range from passenger vehicles to medium duty commercial vehicles.

  21. Automaker Plug-in Plans Plug in Hybrid or Extended Range EV ALL ELECTRIC ? ? Production Nissan Leaf Mitsubishi iMIEV Smart ED GM PHEV Toyota Prius Chevrolet Volt ? Ford Focus Fisker Karma Cadillac Converj BYD 3DFM Ford Transit Connect Tesla Demo/Concept VW Golf TwinDrive BMW Concept Ford Escape PHEV Chrysler/Fiat EV Subaru R1e Mini-E Slide; Progress Energy ; Mike Waters Hyundai Blue-Will Volvo C30 Kia Ray Tesla Model S Toyota FT-EV Mercedes BlueCell

  22. PEV Adoption Forecasts Notes: Includes hybrid vehicles PEV forecast from 2007 EPRI-NRDC study Obama Administration has set a goal of achieving 1 million PEVs on the road in five years

  23. PEV Charging • Commercial EV charging stations for J1772 plugs will expand significantly over the next fuel years. EV’s will also come equipped with a trickle charger and standard plug to take advantage of ‘opportunistic’ charging at a slower rate • A standard for 120v and 240v vehicle charging has been set by SAE. J 1772 connector will be common among EV’s in North America and Japan. It has 5 pins: 2 for AC power in, Ground , Proximity detection (car is connected and has not moved), control (for future communication needs) • To reduce “ range anxiety” for EVs public charging infrastructure is being installed on work , shopping centers, city parking lots and garages, airports, hotels, government offices, and other businesses.

  24. PEV Charging • Level 1 charging uses a common 120-volt, single-phase outlet for a three-prong grounded connector with ground-fault circuit interrupt and requires 8 to 20hours to fully charge a vehicle, depending on the EV and battery type. Advantage of Level 1 charging equipment is that it eliminates the need for upgrades to the current electrical service. • Level 2 charging requires 4 to 8 hours, depending on the EV, battery type, and capacity. Electrical specifications include: - 208-240 volts ac single-phase maximum nominal supply - 32 amps maximum continuous current with 40 amps branch circuit protection • Level 3 charging still in development, requires high voltage to replenish EV batteries in <30 min NCSU Level 2 charger- J1722 plug on left; 110 volt outlet on right www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/electric_charging_equipment.html#level2

  25. Future Option: Rapid Charging A design has not been standardized but there is hope for charging batteries rapidly at EV service ‘pumps’ Nissan LEAF ‘SL’ model includes a rapid charge connection next to the 240v Commercial PEV refill fast as pumping gas?

  26. Clean Cities Coalitions Triangle Clean Cities Coalition www.trianglecleancities.org Centralina Clean Fuels Coalition (Charlotte) www.4cleanfuels.com Land of Sky Clean Vehicles Coalition (Asheville) www.landofsky.org Palmetto State Clean Cities www.palmettocleanfuels.org/ North Carolina Solar Center www.cleantransportation.org Advanced Energy- NC Get Ready www.advancedenergy.org/transportation/programs_and_initiatives/nc_getready.php Plug In Carolina - www.plugincarolina.org/new_home Regional Resources