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A Spirit of Change. The Reformers. Learning Objectives. Evaluate the impact of reform movements Temperance Public Education Women’s Rights Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society Mentally Ill

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a spirit of change

A Spirit of Change

The Reformers

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Evaluate the impact of reform movements
    • Temperance
    • Public Education
    • Women’s Rights
      • Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society
    • Mentally Ill
  • Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States.
  • Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

Page 55-56

Reform Movement:

What did it reform?

People or groups involved/why:

What did they do to change things:

Impact or Outcome:

Movement today?


A campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol.

who led the fight
Who Led the FIGHT?
  • Led by churches, businesses and women.
    • Heavy drinking was common in the 1800’s usually by men.
    • Spending a large amount of money on booze hurting their families.
    • Businesses lost productivity (men couldn’t work because of hangovers and drunkenness)

"Daddy's in there. Our shoes, and stockings and clothes and food are in there, too, and they'll never come out.“Chicago Sun Times (1927)

what did they do to change things
What did they do to change things:
  • Many different attempts were made to stop the abundant drinking.
    • Handing out of pamphlets
    • Production of plays – ex The Drunkard
    • Temperance speakers traveled widely
      • Asking for people to sign a pledge to give up booze
      • By 1838 1 million people had signed
impact and outcome
Impact and Outcome
  • By 1855, 14 states had banned the sale of liquor.
    • Many people opposed these laws and most were repealed
    • But the idea remained strong even into the 20th century
  • The 18th Amendment (1919) (Prohibition) banned the sale of liquor in the U.S.
  • The 21st Amendment(1933) repealed Prohibition (18th Amendment)
what s going on today
What’s going on today?
  • Alcoholism is better understood today.
  • Americans still place a severe social stigma on alcoholism.
  • Types of Help
    • Medical, Government Programs, Law Enforcement Programs, Social Programs.

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) & SADD and Miss America 2006 Jennifer Berry launches shared platform to stop drunkdriving and prevent underage drinking at the Pennsylvania State Police-Philadelphia Station.


Page 55-56


Reform Movement:

Temperance Movement- Anti-Alcohol

What did it reform? Alcohol consumption

People or groups involved/why:

Men-doing the drinking, instead of taking care of their families. Churches, Businesses, Women

What did they do to change things:pamphlets, plays, speakers, pledges

Impact or Outcome: 18th Amendment (banned all alcohol) and later the 21st Amendment which repealed (cancelled) the 18th.

Movement today?

Rehab (stigma) Hollywood has made going to rehab less of a stigma.


Page 55-56

Reform Movement:

What did it reform?

People or groups involved/why:

What did they do to change things:

Impact or Outcome:

Movement today?

problems in american education 1830 s
Problems in American Education-1830’s
  • Wealthy Children went to private schools or hired tutors
  • Most children did not attend school.
  • Schools were one room with few supplies.
  • Teacher’s received low pay and little training.
  • Children attended school only a few months and only for a few years.
    • Most had to drop out to help the family earn money.

Education for a

few, not for all!!

A republic can’t survive without informed voters.


Horace Mann

Leader of Educational Reform!!

“Education. . . beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men…”


Actual Rules for Teachers (circa 1915)

  • You will not marry during the term of your contract.
  • You are not to keep company with men.
  • 3. You must be home between the hours of 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless attending a school function.
  • Your dresses must be not be any shorter than two inches above the ankle.
  • You may not travel beyond the city limits unless you have the permission of the chairman of the (school) board.
  • You may not ride in a carriage or automobile with any man unless he is your father or brother.
  • You may not dress in bright colors.
  • You may under no circumstances dye your hair.
  • You must wear at least two petticoats.
  • You may not loiter downtown in ice cream stores.

8th Grade Final Exam from 1895

This is the eighth grade final exam from 1895 from Salina, Kansas.

Grammar (Time, one hour)

1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.

2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.

3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.

4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run.

5. Define Case. Illustrate each Case.

6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.

7-10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.


Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)

1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.

2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?

3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs. What is it worth at 50 cts. per bu, deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?

4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?

5. Find cost of 6720 lbs.. coal at $6.00 per ton.

6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.

7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $.20 per inch?

8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.

9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?

10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.


U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)

1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.

2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.

3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.

4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.

5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.

6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.

7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe?

8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, and 1865?

how did schools change in the mid 1800 s
How did schools change in the mid - 1800’s?
  • Children had to become good citizens.
    • Learn to read, write and math.
    • Develop good moral character.
  • Business owners wanted their workers to be..
    • Honest
    • On time
    • Hard working
  • Parents wanted their children to have a better life.
what did they do to change things1
What did they do to change things?
  • Noah Webster's famous "Blue Back Spellers" taught millions of children standard American spelling.
  • Public Education
    • "no student or scholar to pay anything for tuition.“
    • In 1789, Massachusetts used tax revenue to finance public education, the first state to do so. New York opened its first free school in 1806.
  • Better Training for Teachers
impact or outcome
Impact or Outcome
  • Education for ALL
    • Starting to educate all socio-economic classes.
    • Educating females.
  • Teaching Colleges
    • Better trained teachers
  • Resources
    • Better textbooks
education today
Education Today!!
  • All children must be educated. (LAW)
  • Better Teacher Training
  • Alternative Teaching Methods
    • Public/Private
    • Home
    • OAC
    • Special Studies Schools/Programs
  • More Resources
    • Computers
    • Libraries
  • All children must learn.
    • “No Child Left Behind” TAKS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Reform Movement:

What did it reform?

People or groups involved/why:

What did they do to change things:

Impact or Outcome:

Movement today?

what did it reform
What did it reform?
  • Women Abolitionists met opposition when trying to speak out against slavery.
  • Society’s Perceptions of Women
    • Female intellectual inferiority
    • Female subordination to males
      • Supported by Biblical references to female obedience, submission, and silence.
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Men were to work at business and women were to take care of the home.
people involved in the change
People Involved in the Change

Lucretia MottAntislavery and Women's Rights Leader

1793 - 1880   

Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)

A Quaker Teacher from New York

She teamed with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to organize and mastermind the movement.

“Disfranchisement says to all women: Your judgment is not sound; Your opinions are not worthy of being counted.”

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

She organized and mastermind the feminist movement.

Led the organization for 50 years.

She was the movement’s philosopher and speechwriter.


Frederick Douglass

Spent the majority of his life to abolish slavery and his struggle for Human Rights, Equal Rights and Civil Rights for all oppressed people.

what did they do to change things2
What did they do to change things:
  • First National Women’s Rights Convention
  • July 19th and 20th , 1848
  • Seneca Falls, New York
  • 300 people attended, including 40 men
  • Many were already associated with abolition, temperance and other types of reform movements.

Seneca Falls Convention

declaration of sentiments
Declaration of Sentiments
  • Document patterned after the Declaration of Independence, written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
    • After the preamble came a list of 18 grievances of women against men.
  • “We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created equal.”

The warrant charged Anthony with voting in a federal election "without having a lawful right to vote and in violation of section 19 of an act of Congress" enacted in 1870, commonly called The Enforcement Act.

The Trial of Susan B. Anthony 1873

impact or outcome1

I can vote!

Impact or Outcome:

19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

women s rights today
Women’s Rights Today
  • Title IX in the Education Codes of 1972, equal access to higher education and to professional schools became the law.
  • In 1972, 26% of men and women said they would not vote for a woman for president. In 1996, that sentiment had plummeted to just over 5% for women and to 8% for men.
more complex issues surface
More Complex Issues Surface
  • Women's enrollment in military academies and service in active combat. Are these desirable?
  • Women in leadership roles in religious worship. Controversial for some, natural for others.
  • Affirmative action. Is help in making up for past discrimination appropriate? Do qualified women now face a level playing field?
  • The mommy track. Should businesses accommodate women's family responsibilities, or should women compete evenly for advancement with men, most of whom still assume fewer family obligations?

Page 55-56

Reform Movement:

What did it reform?

People or groups involved/why:

What did they do to change things:

Impact or Outcome:

Movement today?


Dorothea had volunteered to teach a Sunday School class of twenty women inmates at the Cambridge, Massachusetts jail. After the lesson was over, she walked through the prison with strong objections from the jailer. Dorothea went down to the lower level of the building. They were called the dungeon cells where insane were chained. She saw miserable, wild men and women chained to walls and locked into pens-naked, filthy, brutalized, underfed, given no heat, sleeping on stone floors.

What needed to be reformed!

what did they do to change things3
What did they do to change things?
  • Dorothea Dix
    • Traveled around the country documenting conditions in mental wards and jails.
    • She spoke to federal, state and local governments about conditions and treatment issues.
  • She reported to the Massachusetts Legislature and other states in the country that alternative facilities needed to be provided for the mentally ill.
impact or outcome2
Impact or Outcome:
  • Dorothea Dix played a major role in changing how the mentally ill were treated.
    • 32 mental hospitals, 15 schools for the feeble minded, a school for the blind, and numerous training facilities for nurses.
    • She was also instrumental in establishing libraries in prisons, mental hospitals and other institutions.
mental illness today
Mental Illness Today

More Americans than ever with mental disorders are trying to get care, but only a third receive effective treatments, says a landmark government survey.

  • Research
    • Doctors that specialize
    • Better Understanding
  • Treatment
    • Drugs
    • In and Out Patient Care
impacts of the reform movements in the 1800 s
Impacts of the Reform Movements in the 1800’s
  • Temperance
    • Encouraged some states to ban alcohol.
  • Public Education
    • Helped start America on a course to educate all children.
  • Women’s Rights
    • Helped start a movement to give American women many more rights besides voting.
  • Mentally Ill
    • Led to research and better treatment of patients.
  • Before 1830, many people felt that prisoners should be locked up and punished.
  • New York and Pennsylvania led the way in prison reform.
    • Rigid Daily Routines
    • Strict Discipline
    • Solitary Confinement-Reformersbelieved that if prisoners could think about their errors and repent, they could begin a new life, free of crime.
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Evaluate the impact of reform movements
    • Temperance
    • Public Education
    • Women’s Rights
      • Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society
    • Mentally Ill
  • Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States.
  • Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

Page 55-56

Reform Movement:

What did it reform?

People or groups involved/why:

What did they do to change things:

Impact or Outcome:

Movement today?

  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…..
    • What about these alienated groups?
      • Women
      • Native Americans
      • Blacks
  • Define Abolition:

The movement to end slavery in America & world.

the abolition crusade
The Abolition Crusade
  • Differed from earlier antislavery efforts by vigorously wanting to …
    • End Slavery
    • Promote Racial Equality

What did it reform?????????????

william lloyd garrison
William Lloyd Garrison
  • Started the Abolition Movement
  • Boston, Mass. 1831
  • Founded The Liberator
    • A newspaper demanding the immediate abolition of slavery.
  • By 1840, 2000 Abolition groups had formed
nat turner slave rebellion
Nat Turner Slave Rebellion
  • Virginia
  • Turner and 70 other slaves killed their white masters and their families.
  • Rebellion was blamed on the Abolitionists.
  • More than 100 blacks were killed during the manhunt for Turner.
  • Turner was executed along with 19 followers.
the underground railroad
The Underground Railroad
  • A secret network of routes leading runaway slaves to Canada.
  • Harriet Tubman was a famous conductor.
    • She made 19 trips and help free 300 slaves.
frederick douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • Escaped slave
  • Became one of the most effective abolitionists leaders.
  • Campaigned for the extension of voting rights for blacks and women.
  • Met with Abraham Lincoln to protest discrimination against black Union soldiers.
uncle tom s cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a northern white woman.
  • Published in 1852.
  • Sold 300,000 copies in its first year.
  • It has never gone out of print and today ranks as the most famous novel about slavery.
when abraham lincoln met stowe
When Abraham Lincoln met Stowe…
  • He is said to have addressed her as the person who, “ started this great war.”
responses to abolition
Responses to Abolition
  • Opposition to Abolition
    • North
      • Workers feared that freed blacks would take their jobs.
      • Racism-the belief that one race is naturally superior to another and thus deserves a dominant position in society.
    • South
      • Postmasters refused to deliver anti-slavery publications.
      • Gag Rule in the House of Representatives
      • Published proslavery writings
the emancipation proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Document that ended slavery in Confederate held areas. Didn’t free all slaves. (Union)
  • The North and the South were fighting the Civil War.
  • Issued by Abraham Lincoln in Jan. 1, 1863.
  • Did not free many slaves.
  • Who would Europe support now?
reconstruction amendments 1865 1877
Reconstruction Amendments 1865-1877
  • 13th Amendment
    • Abolished Slavery-Freedom
      • Ratified: December 18, 1865
  • 14th Amendment
    • Granted Black Citizenship
      • Ratified: July 28, 1868
  • 15th Amendment
    • Gave Black Males The Vote
      • Ratified: March 30, 1870

How about today?????

1964: Civil Rights Act

2009: Barack Obama becomes the first African American to become president of the United States.