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Chapter 19. Overview of the Skeleton. The skeletal system includes. Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect. Functions of the skeletal system. Support Storage of minerals and lipids Blood cell production Protection Leverage.

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Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Overview of the Skeleton


The skeletal system includes
The skeletal system includes

  • Bones of the skeleton

  • Cartilages, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect


Functions of the skeletal system
Functions of the skeletal system

  • Support

  • Storage of minerals and lipids

  • Blood cell production

  • Protection

  • Leverage


Subdivisions of the skeleton
Subdivisions of the skeleton

  • Axial

    • Lies around the body’s center of gravity

  • Appendicular

    • Limbs


Bone structure two types of bone
Bone structure = two types of bone

  • Compact bone (dense)

  • Spongy bone (cancellous)

    • trabecula


Classification of bones
Classification of bones

  • By the shape

    • Long

    • Flat

    • Short

    • Irregular

    • Sesamoid

    • Sutural



Bone markings surface features
Bone Markings (Surface Features)


Bone markings
Bone markings

  • Projection that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment:

    • Tubercle (tubercle of the rib)

    • Tuberosity (tibialtuberosity)

    • Trochanter (femur)

    • Epicondyle (medial epicondyle-femur)

    • Line (line aspera-femur)

    • Crest (pubic crest)

    • Process (spinous process)

    • Spine (ischial spine)


Bone markings1
Bone markings

  • Projections that help to form joints:

    • Head (femur)

    • Facet (costal facet)

    • Condyle (femur)

    • Ramus (mandible)


Bone markings2
Bone markings

  • Cavities:

    • Sinus (maxillary)


Bone markings3
Bone markings

  • Depressions and openings for blood vessels and nerves to pass:

    • Foramen (ovale)

    • Meatus (acoustic meatus)

    • Fissure (orbital)

    • Fossa (posterior cranial fossa)


A typical long bone includes
A typical long bone includes

  • Diaphysis

    • Periosteum

    • Perforating fibers (Sharpey’s)

    • Endosteum

  • Epiphyses

    • Epiphysial plate

    • Epiphysial line


A typical long bone includes1
A typical long bone includes

  • Articular cartilage

  • Marrow cavity

    • Filled with red or yellow marrow






Compact bone
Compact bone

  • Basic unit of compact bone is an osteon

    • Osteocytes

    • Lacunae

    • Perforating canals (Volkmann’s)

    • Central canal


Compact bone1
Compact bone

  • Canaliculi

  • Lamella

    • Circumferential

    • Interstitial

    • Concentric



Cartilages of the skeleton
Cartilages of the skeleton

  • Articular cartilages

    • Cover movable joints

  • Costal cartilages

    • Connects ribs to sternum

  • Laryngeal cartilage

  • Nasal cartilage

  • Tracheal and bronchial cartilages

  • Intervertebral discs


Cartilages of the skeleton1
Cartilages of the skeleton

  • Classification of cartilages

    • Hyaline

    • Elastic

      • Pina, Epiglotis

    • Fibrocartilage

      • Pubis, intervertebral discs, meniscus