Open Systems Theory. Edwin D. Bell. Open Systems. This theoretical perspective started with the research of Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in biology (click on “Open system). Definition.
Edwin D. Bell
Hong, N; Al-Khatib; Magagna, B; McLoughlin, A; and Coe, B. (No Date). Systems Theory (Retrieved from http://www.ed.psu.edu/insys/ESD/systems/theory/SYSTHEO2.htm on 3/15/07)
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy, Passages from General systems theory (1968) ( Retrieved from http://www.panarchy.org/vonbertalanffy/systems.1968.html on 3/15/07)