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ADAM Graphics and Document Preservation Methods. Dr. Richard F. Drushel ADAMcon 15 Comox, BC Canada Saturday, 9 August 2003. Session Outline. graphics formats and files exporting graphics from ADAM importing graphics to ADAM copying and preserving paper documents.

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adam graphics and document preservation methods

ADAM Graphics and Document Preservation Methods

Dr. Richard F. Drushel

ADAMcon 15

Comox, BC Canada

Saturday, 9 August 2003

session outline
Session Outline
  • graphics formats and files
  • exporting graphics from ADAM
  • importing graphics to ADAM
  • copying and preserving paper documents

GRAPHICS FILE: data to describe a picture

  • Raster (bitmap)—data in the file corresponds to dots in the picture
  • Vector —object described in terms of “high-level” building blocks


LOGO turtle graphics




Vector Object Representation of a Line

how object is displayed depends on the resolution of the display/renderer

common non adam graphics file formats
Common Non-ADAMGraphics File Formats
  • TIFF: one of the first (original WWW graphics format supported by NCSA Mosaic browser). Very complex, some ambiguities in the specs, leading to incompatible writers and readers. Supports bitmaps (BW, palette color, RGB color), LZW compression (lossless), layers. Designed so that reader can display images that are bigger than physical memory.
  • GIF: widespread in WWW pages. 256-color bitmaps with LZW compression (lossless). Legal problems from Sperry/Unisys.
common non adam graphics file formats1
Common Non-ADAMGraphics File Formats
  • JPEG: RGB color, lossy compression (emphasizeshigh- frequency data while smoothing out low-frequency data). Good for photographs, bad for line art.
  • PDF: Portable Document Format from Adobe Systems, based on PostScript. Many internal data formats for optimum handling of all types of images (raster and vector). Acrobat Reader is free; Acroba (writer) is very expensive.
  • PICT: Apple BW and RGB color bitmaps.
adam image file formats
ADAM Image File Formats
  • Not All-Points-Addressable (APA)
  • Raw dumps of the TMS-9928A Video Display Processor (VDP) RAM!
  • Dependent upon either a real VDP or accurate software emulation of VDP operation in order to read/display/ write them
  • Examples:

SmartPaint 4-part file

PowerPaint 10K binary file

PowerPaint workspace

PNBL files

why no apa for adam
Why No APA for ADAM?
  • Video modes don’t support it. Not enough VRAM for every pixel to have a unique color. Only 15 colors (+ transparent)from a fixed palette are available.
  • 4 imaging planes are overlaid:
    • Foreground
    • Background
    • Border
    • External (only if you use GENLOCK circuit to provide external SYNC signal for both video and VDP)
more about adam s video limitations
More About ADAM’s Video Limitations
  • Foreground color can be set to on/off within each group of 8 pixels on a horizontal scan line
  • Background color can be set to on/off only in every 8-pixel group (i.e., it’s all on or all off)
  • Border color can be one color, on or off
  • External can be any NTSC video source (even another ADAM), but it must be synced with the VDP (extra hardware required)

We can get Pseudo-APA Graphics by clever mixing of the transparent color, in order to allow the background and border colors to show through. This creates the appearance of adjacent pixels of arbitrary color.

  • You can also use sprites to get even more combinations. Limits are 32 sprites max, no more than 4 on any given horizontal scan line.
  • Native ADAM graphics are not APA with infinite flexibility of colors.
  • External APA files can represent ADAM graphics.
  • ADAM cannot display external APA graphics without errors:
    • Color downsampling to a 15-color fixed palette
    • Color bleeding occurs due to VDP hardware limitations
exporting adam graphics
Exporting ADAM Graphics
  • Native ADAM tools (e.g., PowerPaint). Save files, use modem or disk/sneakernet to transfer to another (more capable) computer. However, you must know how to interpret the native ADAM formats and display them/convert to other APA graphics formats.
  • ADAMem and screen capture. Probably the easiest way nowadays; gives you instant BMP files.
importing adam graphics
Importing ADAM Graphics
  • BMP2PP: sophisticated Windows program (Marcel de Kogel) to do the necessary downsampling of external APA images (in Windows BMP format) to get them to display amazingly well on the ADAM (PowerPaint 10K binary file). [this is how I got photos of me and my kids for the annual A.N.N. Christmas card]
  • It is often easier to edit/create complicated graphics on non-ADAM computers and import them as PowerPaint files. Just be sure to design with the 256 x 192 and 15 color limitations in mind.
dr d s favorite non adam graphics programs
Dr. D.’s Favorite Non-ADAM Graphics Programs
  • Canvas (esp. v3.5.4 for Mac). Creates new vector graphics and bitmaps. Current version is 8.0. $$
  • Adobe Photoshop. Color photos, greyscale and bitmap image manipulation. Contrast enhancement, photocopy dirt cleanup, smoothing, blurring, resizing, good text antialiasing. $$$$
  • MS Paint (Wintel). Bitmaps in BMP format. 0
  • Paintshop Pro (Wintel). Like Canvas. $
  • Adobe Illustrator (all). Vector objects. $$$$

Other stuff you can use (YMMV)

why worry
Why Worry?
  • Manuals, printouts, and schematics all deteriorate with age. Often on bad acid-containing wood pulp paper.
  • Many documents are rare/unique. Need to:
    • Prevent loss due to accident (e.g., flooded basement) or malice (e.g., wife throws them out)
    • Make the information available to others who can use it productively (e.g., programmers)
  • Some docs have no more original! Only a bad copy remains.
image restoration what you can do
Image Restoration: what you can do:
  • Fix bad rotation from hasty photocopying
  • Remove copy-of-a-copy artifacts
  • Fix damaged graphics or typography
  • Fix errors—this changes the original, but it’s better to have it correct IMHO
    • Okay for BW stuff, not good for greyscale
    • Some new halftoning digital copiers can cope with greys
    • Color laser photocopying is still expensive
  • Flatbed Scanner
    • Creates a graphics file
    • File can be very large (100+ MB) if high resolution or in color.
    • Need suitable computer and graphics editing resources

Digital images are immortal:

  • they won’t degrade
  • you can repair errors in the original
manual repair methods photocopy based
Manual Repair Methods(photocopy based)
  • Photocopy the best original that you can
  • Fix this copy
    • White-out spots
    • Repair breaks in broken lines or characters
    • Derotate and paste onto clean sheet of paper
  • This becomes the new copy master
disadvantages to manual methods
Disadvantages toManual Methods:
  • Adds another photocopy generation
    • Very hard on small typefaces or intricate drawings
    • Photographs are likely to become too contrasty
  • New master is “fragile”
    • Tape can discolor, overlays can come unstuck, white-out can chip and crack

(Advantage: copiers handle oversize docments easily)

digital restoration methods
Digital Restoration Methods
  • Scan.
    • text and line art, use bitmap at highest resolution you can (at least 300 dpi, 600 dpi is better)
    • black and white photos, use greyscale
      • Must “whiten” the background to get rid of the paper stock color
    • color photos, use RGB color
      • same “whitening” problems
    • oversize: must scan in overlapping sections
more digital restoration
More Digital Restoration
  • Edit.
    • Dr. D.’s favorite is Adobe Photoshop
      • can rotate to 0.01 degree accuracy
      • can control brightness, contrast, and color balance
      • can sharpen, smooth, redraw missing lines
      • infinite UNDO levels if you make a mistake
      • Easily handles many file formats (e.g., TIFF)
      • V.7.0 can export PDFs (good for net.distribution)
docs i ve restored to date i
Docs I’ve Restored to Date I
  • ADAM Technical Manual
    • Totally retyped it and made a web page.
    • The original text, especially many assembly listings, was too poor to scan and do Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The original figures were totally redrawn in Canvas and saved as anti-aliased GIF files.
docs i ve restored to date ii
Docs I’ve Restored to Date II
  • ADAM schematics
    • Scanned originals as overlapping TIFFs, made PDFs, put on webpage
  • Report of Apollo 13 Review Board
    • Very bad scan/PDF from NASA
    • Used Adobe Acrobat to export bad pages, Adobe Photoshop to repair them
docs i ve restored to date iii
Docs I’ve Restored to Date III
  • Report of Apollo 204 Review Board
    • Apollo 1 fire report, in 5 volumes (2500 pages), from CWRU library
    • Scan original to TIFFs, edit in Adobe Photoshop, make PDFs
docs i ve restored iv
Docs I’ve Restored IV
  • ColecoVision Programmers Manual
    • Used photocopy methods to make a new copy master from terrible multi-generation copy.
    • Not sure if a genuine original survives anywhere...
    • Digital version begun about 2 years ago, left incomplete due to lack of good editing tools at the time. (I could do better now.)
would be nice to do some day
Would Be Nice to Do Some Day
  • Standard ColecoVision and ADAM manual sets
  • ColecoVision cartridge game manuals
  • “rare” hardware manuals
    • Mini Wini HD interface board
    • Linger serial terminal board
    • ZRT-80 serial terminal board (in Orphanware 80-column unit)
many thanks to all who have loaned documents to be copied scanned

Many Thanksto all who have loaned documentsto be copied/scanned

  • Richard Clee (schematics)
  • Barry Wilson (ColecoVision Programmers Manual)