Moving beyond what we know risk and resilience factors and the development of ebd
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Moving Beyond What We Know: Risk and Resilience Factors and the Development of EBD. Christine Christle Kristine Jolivette C. Michael Nelson University of Kentucky Terrance M. Scott University of Florida. Dismal Futures for Students with EBD. Difficulty maintaining jobs

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Moving beyond what we know risk and resilience factors and the development of ebd l.jpg

Moving Beyond What We Know:Risk and Resilience Factorsand the Development of EBD

Christine Christle

Kristine Jolivette

C. Michael Nelson

University of Kentucky

Terrance M. Scott

University of Florida

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Dismal Futures for Students with EBD

  • Difficulty maintaining jobs

    • Only 44% had jobs 3 - 5 years after leaving school (McLaughlin, Leone, Warren, & Schofield, 1994)

  • Criminal Activity

    • 1/5 of students with EBD arrested while in school

    • 58% arrested 5 years after school

    • 73% of EBD drop outs arrested within 5 years of leaving school(Chesapeake Institute, 1994)

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Risk and Resilience

  • Risk: conditions or situations that are empirically related to particular outcomes (Reddy et al., 2001)

  • Resilience: a characteristic that allows a person to make appropriate behavioral choices in the presence of multiple risk factors (Finley, 1994)

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Risk and Resilience

  • Operate through complex interactions across life domains

    • Individual

    • Family

    • School

    • Peer groups

    • Community

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Cognitive deficits

Reading readiness

Following directions


Social skills


Early intervention

Cognitive skills training

Parent training

Preschool programs

High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

Individual Factors

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Poor Parenting Skills


Harsh - Abusive


Substance abuse, crime




Emotional problems


Prenatal parent training

Home visitation by nurses

Teach child

Health and self care skills

Emotional coping strategies

Family Factors

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Best predictor of behavioral deviation (Scott & Nelson, 1999)

Best predictor of school failure


Link families to needed services


Social Services


Teach educators about poverty (Payne, 1998)

Family Factors

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Low school involvement

Failure cycle

Academics difficult

Student escapes

Teacher avoids


Include students in policy decisions

Match instruction to level of ability

Facilitate success

Effective academic instruction

Effective behavior management

School Factors

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Less academics




Dropping out


Increase active participation

Meaningful instruction

Alternative programs

Involve parents

School Factors

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Peer rejection

Deviant peers

Deviancy training

Gang involvement


Teach social skills

Facilitate prosocial groups

Functional assessment

Replace deviant and gang involvement

Peer Factors

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Media - TV


Neighborhood disorganization




Monitor -Teach reflection

After school programs

Community mentors (BBBSA)

School/Community links (SLP)

Drug prevention programs



Community Factors

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Present Study

  • Hypothesis: There is a correlation between school poverty rate and academic outcomes. We can predict that a school with high poverty will have lower academic outcomes.

  • #1: What academic variables or indicators separate effective schools that are at-risk due to poverty level compared to at-risk schools that are performing as expected?

  • #2: What differences in behavioral variables or indicators, if any, exist between these two types of schools?

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Present Study

  • Sample: ~6 elementary schools

    • 1-2 Sds below/above mean on CTBS

    • Matched by county - target 3rd grade

    • High county poverty & percentage of free/reduced lunch

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Data Collection

  • Survey: 32 questions - by administrator

  • Topical Areas

    • School-wide Expectations

    • School Climate and Discipline

    • Evaluation and Decision Making

    • Suspension, Expulsion, and Referrals

    • Unique Features of School

  • Supporting Materials (to attach)

    • School Handbook/Policies

    • Schedules/Calendar

    • 3rd grade Curricula

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Data Collection

  • On-Site Observations: - Classrooms

    • Effective Practices

    • Transitions

    • Academic foci

    • Behavior management systems

  • On-Site Interviews: -Teachers, staff

    • Academic & behavioral expectations

      • Remedial plans/decision making process

    • School climate

    • Collaboration and partnerships

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Data Collection

  • On-Site Observations: - School-wide

    • Hallways

    • Lunchroom w/transitions

    • Common areas

    • Physical surroundings

      • Staffing ratios

      • Expectations & rules

      • Materials & supplies

      • Behavior management

      • Behavioral incidents

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  • What other variables should be observed?

  • Poverty is a salient variable that can negatively affect academic achievement - what other variables have similar effects?

  • Are schools that are academically effective also more behaviorally effective - what variables separate these two groups (discipline data; special education referral, truancy, drop out, or retention rates)?

  • What is the relationship between school effectiveness/safety and the community?