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Ethanol Production. Dr. Lek Wantha. Ethanol. Ethyl alcohol Intoxicating element in beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages Renewable energy source Biofuel  alternative Reduce air pollution. Ethanol Using. Alcohol drinking Medicine production Solvents Cosmetic production

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Ethanol Production


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    1. Ethanol Production Dr. LekWantha

    2. Ethanol • Ethyl alcohol • Intoxicating element in beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages • Renewable energy source • Biofuel alternative • Reduce air pollution

    3. Ethanol Using • Alcohol drinking • Medicine production • Solvents • Cosmetic production • Renewable energy source • Renewable energy from benzene and diesel • Benzene + ethanol= Gassohol • Diesel+ ethanol= Diesohol • Increase octane in petroleum

    4. Ethanol Physical and Chemical Properties

    5. Global Ethanol Production in 2012

    6. Ethanol Process • Chemical synthesis • petroleum derivatives • Ethylene: using ethylene hydration • Estherification C2H4 + H2SO4 CH3CH2SO4H (Ethyl sulfate) CH3CH2SO4H+ H2OCH3CH2OH + H2SO4 (Ethanol) (Sulfuric acid) CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2OCH3COOH+ CH3CH2OH (Ethyl acetate) (Acetic acid ) (Ethanol) Ethylene hydration H2SO4 Esterification

    7. Ethanol Process • Fermentation • Monosaccharide • Glycolysis • Anaerobic condition (no oxygen) C6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH +2CO2 (Raw materials: (Ethanol) (Carbon dioxide) sugar) 100%  51.1% + 48.9% Yeast

    8. Materials • Sugar: sugar cane/molass/sorghum • Starch • Cassava • Corn • Cellulose

    9. Materials • Choosing the grain or plants • New Zealand: dairy whey waste • US : corn • Brazil : sugar cane • Canada : barley • EU : sugar beets and wheat • Thailand : cassava (99.5%)

    10. Raw Materials in Thailand • Sugar based: molasses and sugar cane • Starch based: cassava and rice Cassava

    11. Ethanol Production

    12. Materials: Sugar Process Bagasses • Sugar cane Molasses Sugar

    13. Other materials • Molass • By product from sugar production • 190 L of molass/1ton of sugar • 55% sucrose, glucose and fructose • 1 ton of molass /280 L of ethanol • Sweet sorghum • Sucrose • Glucose • High value of ethanol production • Sweet sorghum trees are sweet • Sugar beet • Low product (ethanol)

    14. Carbohydrates Polysaccharide Monosaccharide

    15. Step of Ethanol Production • Milling • Liquefaction • Saccharification • Fermentation • Distillation • Dehydration • Denaturing • Co-Products Preparing before Fermentation Fermentation After Fermentation

    16. Process Description • Milling • Cooking and mixing • Milled corn and cook water • a-Amylase to break down long polymer chains (starch), reduce solids • Solubilization of sugars • Release of bound sugars: starch is bound to protein and fiber which is released during cooking • Gelatinization: absorb water so enzymes can react with molecules 16

    17. Process Description • Liquefaction • Using a-Amylase to break down starches to shorter chain molecules • Saccharification and Fermentation • Batch processs (~ 50-60 hours) • Exothermic • Glucoamylase is used to break down short chained molecules to glucose • Yeast is added to convert glucose to ethanol

    18. Process Description • Distillation • Separate Ethanol from non-fermentable components • Dehydration • Azeotropic Distillation • Molecular Sieves • Non-Fermentables • Centrifugation • Evaporation • Drying 18

    19. Preparing Before Fermentation • Sugar • Starch Bagasse yeast amylase Glucose Carbon dioxide Ethanol Starch H(C6H10O5)n OH  nC6H12O6 2nCH3CH2OH + 2nCO2 water

    20. Preparing Before Fermentation • Pretreatment • Physical treatment • Mechanical communition : reduce size • Pylolysis: high temperature drying • Physico-chemical treatment • Steam explosion • Ammonia fiber explosion • Carbon dioxide explosion • Chemical treatment • Ozonization • Acid Hydrolysis • Alkali hydrolysis • Oxidative delignification • Organosolv process • Biological treatment

    21. Fermentation yeast C6H10O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 + 28.7 kcal Material Ethanol Carbon dioxide (sugar) 100 51.11 48.89

    22. Fermentation Fundamentals • Key Ingredients • Starch (sugar source) • Enzymes (breakdown of starches) • Yeast (conversion of sugar to ethanol) • Key Process Components • Enzyme addition • Yeast propagation • Fermentation cycle • Cooling system

    23. Fermentation Factors • Microorganisms • Yeast • pH: 3-5 • Temperature: 27-35 ºC • Bacteria • SaccharomycesCerevisiae/Zymomonasmobillis • Better than yeast • Shorter fermented time • Using only three sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) • Nutrients: sugar, ammonia, other minerals • Sugar concentration • Temperature : 27-35 ºC • Contaminate

    24. Fermentation Factors: Yeast Source: Panchal and Tavares (1990)

    25. Fermentation types X= biomass, S= substrate, P= product, t= time

    26. Distillation • Simple distillation • Fractional distillation • Stream distillation • Others Fractional distillation

    27. Distillation Stream distillation

    28. Other Distillations • Liquid phase absorption • Azeotropic distillation • Homotropicazeotropic distillation • Heterotropicazeotropic distillation • Direct sequences • Indirect sequences • Pressure swing absorption • Pervaporation Process

    29. Other Distillation

    30. Pressure Swing Absorption

    31. Pervaporation Process

    32. Ethanol and Environment • Ethanol • E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline) • E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) • Renewable fuel used • Ethanol can reduce pollution and (Maybe) Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    33. Reference • นคร ทิพยาวงศ์. เทคโนโลยีการแปลงสภาพชีวมวล. พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 1. กรุงเทพฯ: สำนักพิมพ์ ส.ส.ท., 2552