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Towards a Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places. Establishing Meaningful Links Krzysztof Janowicz; Muenster Semantic Interoperability Lab (MUSIL). Outline. Motivation Scenario Annotation Theory Further Work.

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towards a similarity based identity assumption service for historical places

Towards a Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

Establishing Meaningful Links

Krzysztof Janowicz; Muenster Semantic Interoperability Lab (MUSIL)

Krzysztof Janowicz

outline
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Scenario
  • Annotation
  • Theory
  • Further Work

Image from: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Victory

(Bleiglass, 1998)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

motivation
Motivation
  • For the cultural heritage community
    • Incomplete and vague knowledge
    • Interchange between external sources is necessary to answer complex scientific questions &to clean up local knowledge
    • Local versus global identifiers
    • Accessible service-based infrastructure!

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

motivation1
Motivation
  • For semantic similarity research
    • Application of similarity in a real world domain
    • Similarity as part of the identity assumption puzzle
    • Combination of similarity and classical reasoning
    • Using a stable upper-level ontology (CIDOC CRM)
    • Theory of similarity assumptions for historical places

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

motivation2
Motivation
  • For an identity assumption service
    • To run queries against multiple sources it has to be made sure that they refer to the same real-world phenomena; just a common language is notenough!
    • Non unique place names (even within the same area)
    • Place names refer to cities,rivers, valleys, mountains,…
    • Misinterpreted place names (e.g. 'Al Wahat‘  Oasis)
    • Names also refer to varying geopolitical units (e.g. nomads) or prominent (artificial) landmarks (e.g. telegraph stations)
    • Out-dated place or even country names (e.g. UDSSR)

 Gazetteers can only partially solve these problems

(From discussions with Dr. Karl-Heinz Lampe; ZFMK)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

battle of trafalgar scenario

Place names:

Cabo Trafalgar,

Taraf al-Gharb,

رأس الطرف الأغر

HMS Victory:

Which one?!

Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson,

1st Viscount Nelson?

Also in a historical source

from French perspective?

Spatial relation between naval

battleground and terrestrial cape,

Province Cadiz,..?

Temporal relations?

Battle of Trafalgar - Scenario
  • Took place at Cape Trafalgar (Province Cadiz) in 1805
  • British victory under the command of Horatio Nelson
  • HMS Victory was Nelsons flagship
  • Nelson was shot during the battle and died afterwards

 Should be easy to annotate!?

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horatio_Nelson (painted by Nicholas Pocock)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

slide7

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Trafalgar_aufstellung.jpg

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

annotation of historical knowledge
Annotation of Historical Knowledge
  • CIDOC conceptual reference model (CRM) as upper-level ontology for the cultural heritage domain
  • specifies abstract and interrelated vocabulary instead of concrete definitions such as for kinds of exhibits  heterogeneous domain!
  • describes historical knowledge by relations between places, events, actor and objects
  • RDF(S) based representation
  • ISO Standard (ISO/PRF 21127)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

annotation examples rdf triples
Annotation Examples (RDF-Triples)
  • P89F.falls_within(E53.Place(Cape Trafalgar), E53.Place(Province Cádiz))

Subject-Predicate-Object:

The place Cape Trafalgarfalls within a place called Province Cádiz

  • P8F.took_place_at(E7.Activity(Battle of Trafalgar), E53.Place(Cape Trafalgar))
  • P117F.occurs_during (E7.Activity(Battle of Trafalgar), E5.Event(Trafalgar Campaign))
  • P14F.carried_out_by (E7.Activity(Battle of Trafalgar), E21.Person(Nelson))
  • P2F.has_type (E53.Place(Andalusia), E55.Type(regions))

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory
Theory
  • In practice semi-automatic disambiguation via gazetteers and other global authorities (such as for historical figures) is often difficult, expensive and error-prone

(especially for subordinate geopolitical units, events, actors,…)

  • Use the links established via the CIDOC CRM annotation between places, actors, objects and events as additional reference points!

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory1

interpretation

interpretation

Theory

Use thematic information as support for spatiotemporal reference

Geoinformation = < x, z >

Spatiotemporal Reference Systems

Semantic Reference Systems

CIDOC CRM

+ Reasoning

+ Similarity

Mike Goodchild: Geographic Rreality

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory framework
Theory: Framework

Comparing Place Descriptions

  • Extract new triples out of existing ones

 Spatiotemporal & Subsumption Reasoning

  • Compute overlap between source and target triples

 Semantic Similarity Measurement

  • Compare remaining labels & identifiers

 Syntactic Identifier Matching

  • How probably compared places correspond

 Identity Assumption

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory reasoning

HMS XYZ (1805)

?

HMS XYZ (1804)

Theory: Reasoning
  • Entities are described by sets of RDF triples
  • Inference rules to generate new triples
    • Make local knowledge explicit!
    • More comparable information about entities
  • Example: Spatial & temporal Inference rules
  • Be careful - names are ambiguous!

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory similarity

Province

Cádiz

Province

Cádiz

Nelson

falls within

Cape

Trafalgar

Source:

performed

Napoleonic

Wars

sims

simp *

=

sims

Province

Cádiz

overlaps with

falls within

Cape

Trafalgar

Target:

Nelson

died in

Theory: Similarity

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory network approach to similarity
Theory: Network Approach to Similarity
  • For all tuples from the source entity: find equal or similar tuples within the target entity description
  • Define meaningful notions of similarity for given predicates (relations)
      • Spatial
      • Temporal
      • Thematic
  • Define meaningful notion of similarity for all objects that are not subjects of other triples themselves (e.g. ADL Feature Types)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory neighborhoods hierarchies
Theory: Neighborhoods & Hierarchies

spatial

temporal

thematic

Egenhofer & Al-Taha 1992

Different similarity measures for neighborhoods & hierarchies

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory syntactic matching

(Getty Thesaurus)

ID: 7008751

ID: 7008750

Cape Trafalgar

Wrexham

Theory: Syntactic Matching
  • After recursively applying (semantic) similarity measurements, only labels, vague appellations and identifier are left

 Requires syntactic matching / measuring

(found at: www.gwjokes.com )

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

theory identity assumptions
Theory: Identity Assumptions
  • Two place descriptions probably refer to the same (real world) place if they are linked via equal or similar relations to equal or similar events, actors, objects, …
  • Similar position within a network of historical facts
  • Stepwise applying new restrictions to the set of compared historical places

Number of compared tuples is a critical issue!

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

further work evidence
Further Work & Evidence
  • Similarity is only one part of the puzzle!
  • Other parts: trust, contradictions & consistence,...
  • Which inference rules may lead to difficulties?
  • How to handle complementary knowledge?
  • Connections to Time Map and ECAI
  • Evidence! Battle of Trafalgar Scenario?
    • Develop a identity assumption pilot
    • Combination of similarity measurement with itineraries
    • Based on real world data from ZFMK, Bonn (biodiversity museum)

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

questions
Questions
  • Thank You!
  • Special thanks to
    • Martin Doerr

Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)Institute of Computer Science. Heraklion, Crete, Greece

    • Karl-Heinz Lampe

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK). Bonn, Germany

  • Any Questions?

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

real world place
‘Real World’-Place?

From: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Atlantis_map_kircher.gif

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places

gazetteer feature types
Gazetteer Feature Types
  • Gazetteer Feature Types

Andalucía

ADLG Getty Thesaurus

Similarity-Based Identity Assumption Service for Historical Places