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Keeping the Salon Clean: Preventing Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Contaminants. Written by Dallas Duncan HS_CSII_2 2011. How Contaminants Enter the Body. Through a wound or other skin break Contaminated water or food Inhaling airborne pathogens

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keeping the salon clean preventing bacteria viruses and other contaminants

Keeping the Salon Clean:Preventing Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Contaminants

Written by Dallas Duncan

HS_CSII_2

2011

how contaminants enter the body
How Contaminants Enter the Body
  • Through a wound or other skin break
  • Contaminated water or food
  • Inhaling airborne pathogens
  • Eyes, ears, and other bodily fluids, such as blood
  • Cosmetologists should be especially concerned with bloodborne pathogens
    • If you accidentally cause a person with a bloodborne pathogen to bleed, you risk contaminating your tools or yourself

Contaminants can enter the body in a variety of ways, including through the eyes

bacteria
Bacteria
  • Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can exist almost anywhere
  • Bacteria move using whip-like flagella or cilia
  • Most bacteria are harmless and are constantly present in the body, helping to digest food and protect against foreign pathogens
  • Pathogens are harmful bacteria that can cause disease
    • Because of pathogenic bacteria, salons must maintain certain health standards and regulations
types of pathogenic bacteria
Types of Pathogenic Bacteria
  • Bacilli
    • Most common type of bacteria
    • Short and rod-shaped
    • Cause diseases such as lockjaw and tuberculosis
  • Cocci
    • Round-shaped bacteria that can be grouped into clusters, strings, or pairs
    • Varieties: Staphylococci, streptococci, diplococci
    • Cause diseases such as pneumonia and strep throat
  • Spirilla
    • Spiral-shaped bacteria
    • Cause diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease

Staphylococcus bacteria

bacteria life cycle
Bacteria Life Cycle
  • Structure: Outer cell wall, internal protoplasm
  • Active/Vegetative Stage
    • Stage where bacteria grow and reproduce
    • After reaching the largest size, bacteria undergo mitosis and divide to form two new cells
  • Inactive/Spore-Forming Stage
    • Not all bacteria form spores
    • Spores allow bacteria to withstand hardship such as famine and unfavorable environments
    • When conditions change, bacteria become active again

Bacteria that can grow in colonies are in the active stage of their life cycle

types of bacterial infection
Types of Bacterial Infection
  • Infection: Body tissues are invaded by a pathogen
  • Though there are some treatments for infection, many types of bacteria are becoming resistant, meaning there is now a greater need for pathogen control in cosmetology
  • Local Infection
    • Confined to a particular part of the body
    • Identified by a pus-containing lesion
  • General Infection
    • Bloodstream carries the bacteria and its toxins to all parts of the body

E. coli bacteria cause a general infection

viruses
Viruses
  • A virus is a microscopic structure that can get into the bodies of many organisms, including bacteria
  • They infect organisms by replicating their own genetic material alongside that of their host
  • Viruses consist of genetic material made of DNA or RNA, a protein coat, and a lipid envelope
  • There are millions of different kinds of viruses
  • Viruses are generally resistant to antibiotics

Bacteriophage virus attacking a bacterial cell

viruses pertinent to cosmetology
Viruses Pertinent to Cosmetology
  • Hepatitis
    • Causes inflammation of the liver
    • Three types — A, B, and C
      • A has flu-like symptoms and can be spread through poor sanitation and poor personal hygiene
      • B is more severe but is spread through sexual contact
      • C is fatal and is also spread through sexual contact
  • HIV/AIDS
    • HIV is spread through the transmission of bodily fluids
    • HIV can lead to AIDS, which compromises the immune system
  • Other viruses include common colds, chicken pox, polio, and the flu
    • Many of these other viruses can be spread through poor sanitation and poor personal hygiene

Novel H1N1 Influenza Virus

fungi
Fungi
  • Include molds, mildews, and yeasts
  • Can cause skin diseases such as ringworm
  • Nail Fungus
    • Contracted through improperly washed implements
    • Never goes away but is usually confined to one area
    • Can be spread between clients and from client to cosmetologist
    • Treatment is applied to the affected area but it can require a doctor’s care

Nail infected with fungus

parasites
Parasites
  • Includes head lice and scabies
  • Parasites are smaller than their hosts and reduce the fitness and viability of the host
  • Can live on the surface or inside the host
  • Transmission of parasites depends on the hosts and the environment

Head lice are common parasites of interest to cosmetologists