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Revolutions and their causes and effects: political, economic, social and ideological Role of leadership The Cuban Revolution and Castro’s regime Economic changes Argentina, Brazil, and Chile Military regimes: causes and effects Return to democracy.

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political and economic developments in latin america after world war two

Revolutions and their causes and effects: political, economic, social and ideological

Role of leadership

The Cuban Revolution and Castro’s regime

Economic changes

Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

Military regimes: causes and effects

Return to democracy

Political and Economic Developments in Latin America After World War Two

  • Infamous Decade
    • Frequent electoral fraud earned this period the nickname of the infamous decade
    • Fraud and economic problems stimulated opposition to the influence of wealthy landowners
    • Military leaders wanted industry to take major economic role and disliked political parties
    • Launched a coup June 6, 1943
  • Juan Peron
    • 47 year old colonel, Argentine embassy

in Italy

    • Soon became secretary of labor
      • Built support for himself by pushing anti-communism, wage increase, and supporting unions
    • Through 1944 became war minister and vice president
    • In October 1945 was arrested by opponents
      • Provoked an unprecedented public reaction
      • Released and allowed to thank supporters
      • Shortly after married Evita Duarte
  • Juan Peron continued…
    • February of ‘46 held free elections
      • Opposing parties formed a coalition to oppose
      • Used labor unions to get working class vote
      • Peron won with 52%
    • Surplus of foreign exchange (food surplus during WWII) for industrialization programs
    • Paid off entire national debt in ‘47
    • Nationalized British rail lines in ‘48
    • Economy grew 8.8% per year from ‘46-’48
  • Represented a new golden age from the oligarchy of the previous century
    • Popularity helped him hold a new constitutional convention
    • Storm clouds gathered though; export prices fell, import prices rose, production decreased, averted a military coup in ‘51
  • Evita died of cancer in ‘52 @ 33, marking an end to an era
  • Opponents launched a successful military coup in ‘55
  • Impossible Game
    • Military officers united in opposition to Peron, but divided in ideas to govern country
    • Accepted representative government as long as it was not under Peronist theme
    • “impossible game” military would not accept democracy that included Peronist members and citizens would not accept any system that denied the option of voting Peronist
  • Return of Peron
    • From exile Peron issued vaguely leftist statements toward new generation of voters
    • Would find followers divided between young socialists and older anti-communists
    • Wave of violent political activity against military regime
    • New president began negotiating new election including Peronism
      • Allowed a Peronist candidate, not Peron himself
      • Although this did allow pave the road for Peron to return
    • Peronist movement was still split and he died of pneumonia
    • Leaving the government in the hands of his vice president and third wife
  • Dirty War of Subversion (1976-1983)
    • Military process of national reorganization—get rid of terrorists and socialists
    • Led to what is called the “Dirty war”
      • Murder, torture, and death of thousands
    • Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo worked to document disappearances
    • Protests demanded new democratic elections which took place in 1983
  • Getulio Vargas “Father of the Poor” and the new state (1930-1945)
    • Presented himself as national savior who would transform economy
      • NY crash had drastic effect on economy
    • Lost ‘30 election but was so fraudulent there was rebellion everywhere and winner was deposed and Vargas stepped in
      • Replaced all governors and dominated assembly
    • New constitution of ‘37
      • Positive: secret ballot, voting age to 18 and women
      • Negative: centralized authority, added presidential power
    • November of ‘37, just before the next elections
      • Vargas surrounded congress with troops, suspended elections, abolished legislature, and creation of a new state
        • Rationalized because of political (fascism and Nazism) and economic (depression) disorder
        • Two themes: economic nationalism and national security
      • Communist plan is upturned, intending to murder several politicians
        • Excuse used by Vargas to shut down congress and throw Brazil into dictatorship
  • WWII allowed him to help his paternalistic image
    • Professionalization of civil servants
    • Social Security
    • Minimum Wage
    • Labor Legislation
  • Declared war on Axis Powers out of financial reasons not on principal
    • Installed heavy industries in Brazil
      • Steel mill, petroleum, and national electricity companies
  • Pressure from opponents forced him to hold elections after WWII
    • October of 1945 military forced Vargas to resign or face a coup
    • Why fight dictators in Europe and allow them at home?
    • Peacefully left on October 10th 1945
  • The Second Republic (‘45-’64)
    • Ended the “new state”
    • Four major dynamics
      • Open list electoral system – vote for whomever not from a list of candidates
      • Many parties won legislature seats – reducing the influence of political parties
      • Diverse voter preferences – decidedly divided legislatures
      • Rural states were overrepresented
    • Produced weak presidents with no legislature power
      • Gridlock, lack of progress, economic deadlock
    • Outlawed communist party and cut ties with Soviets
  • Vargas Returned in the 1950 election
    • Found legislative tough to deal with
    • Drained by age, conflict, corruption, media attacks, pressure from military
  • August 24, 1954 had cabinet meeting to decide to resign or stay
    • After meeting shot himself leaving a letter of his will
      • Last line says “…I leave life to enter History”
  • A few presidents came in and out of power until 1964
  • Military regime took office after a coup in this same year
  • Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Rule (’64-’85)
    • Abolished all political parties, replacing with one opposing and one pro-government party
    • Held power on two grounds:
      • Suppression of basic rights would purge society of potential communist
      • Silencing civilian politicians would give better economic performance
    • These two grounds after twenty years would disintegrate forcing the people to push for a new civilian rule and force out the military regime
  • 1891-1924
    • Civil war took power from president and gave more to congress
      • Ability to move cabinet members
      • Legislative could control executive
      • Produced much stalemate and gridlock
  • Compromise and a divided electorate (1925-1958)
    • Past state of affairs called for a new constitution
    • Struggled with too many parties providing with presidents that had no legislative backing and were weak
    • Radicals, conservatives, and socialists fought for power
  • “Three Thirds” of Polarized Pluralism (1958-1973)
    • Differences between left, center, and right flared
      • Land reform and major export-copper
    • 1958 election was barely lost by socialist Salvador Allende
    • A coalition was formed to stop him from winning it in 1964
      • U.S supported this strategy, Frei defeated Allende, but had to deal with a sharply divided legislature
      • He called for “Chileanization” of major copper companies
        • Government buy 51%, but leave under original management
        • Set limit of acres per farm, government would distribute excess land
  • 1970 election Allende called for a “democratic path to socialism”
    • First Marxist to gain power in a free democratic election
    • Faced serious economic problems
    • Takes action towards economy
      • Redistributes land and wealth, nationalizes copper industry, 40% wage increase, companies could not increase prices, nationalized the banks, restored diplomatic relations with Cuba, China, and the German Democratic Republic
    • September 11, 1973 carried out a coup
      • Allende died fighting in the presidential palace in

Santiago, replaced by Augusto Pinochet

      • Allende party members were gathered up and

thousands arrested and hundreds murdered

  • Augusto Pinochet Regime
    • Allende had promoted Pinochet to commander-in-chief in ‘73, 20 days later leading the strike on the presidential palace to oust Allende
    • Substantial reorganization of economics and politics
    • Placed economic policy in the hands of the Chicago boys
      • Centered on the reduction of tariffs and privatization of state owned enterprises
      • Left the copper industry in the hands of government control and put money from it in defense budget
  • Politically put power in the hands of the presidency
    • Decreased role of his rivals in army, air force, and navy
    • New constitution in 1980
    • Gave him an 8 year term with a following 8 years if voters approved an extension
    • Voting was controversial, took place in a wake of 7 years of harsh treatment of citizens: 2000 executed, 1 in 4 were tortured or imprisoned without trial
    • Many of Allende old supporters were taken from voter registration lists
  • Transformed government with the seven modernizations
    • Labor reform: allowed labor unions
    • Agriculture: returned land to original owners
    • Education: placed most schools under local control
    • Health: nationwide medical care was now privatized
    • Justice: expanded number of courts and fewer restrictions on presentation of evidence
    • Public administration: expanded authority of local governments
    • Social security: turned public pension into private investment program
  • These “7” led to reduced inflation and good economic growth
    • World recession in the ‘80’s caused the economy to collapse
    • Unemployment rose to 20%
    • 1984 had a boom b/c of government subsidies and raising copper prices
    • Wages and unemployment did not return though
  • Pinochet would lose the 1988 election and his military rule would end
  • Remained a senator for life and kept his position as commander-in-chief
  • Visiting the UK, opponents brought charges against him, but was deemed unfit for trial
    • Charges were brought upon him again in 2006, but died before they could proceed
  • Chileans are divided
    • Economy got a lot better and he was a patriot who loved his country
    • Ruthless, directly responsible for the murder of thousands
  • Batista to Castro (1934-1958)
    • Backed by the U.S. Fulgencio Batista created a less reformist civiliangovernment
    • Removed all provisions of Platt amendment except that US could still have military bases
    • New constitution in 1940
      • Biggest complaint against him was that he never lived up to the constitution
    • Batista lost ‘44 election to Ramon Grau, who was very corrupt
    • Batista led a military coup in ‘52 to oust Grau
      • Castro had a good chance at winning a legislative seat until Batista's coup
      • Castro led a military rebellion and was arrested and tried
        • Trial speech made him famous: “history will absolve me”
      • Government was worse than ever, corrupt, dependence on US, no free elections
  • Fidel Castro
    • Castro was released in ‘55 and went into exile in Mexico
    • Fidel and his brother recruited opponents including CheGuevera
    • Returned in late ‘56 for a new rebellion, failed, but fled to Sierra Maestra Mountains for a guerilla movement
      • Used the radio and broke into different groups geographically
    • They were most visible opposition to Batista, so much that he fled on December 31, 1958
  • Revolutionary Offensive(1959-1970)
    • Judge, Manuel Urrutia, initially led interim government
    • Castro was in charge of restructuring military
    • Became cabinet chief in in February of ‘59
      • Cabinet members slowly resigned and leaders allied with Castro took their spots
    • Urrutia resigned in May and a lawyer loyal to Castro took over
    • Would quickly fade as Castro took the reigns
      • US relations soured, delayed elections, and increased economic reform
      • Sign five year economic cooperation with Soviets
      • US launched an embargo in October of ‘60 and broke off diplomatic ties in January of 1961
      • CIA trained Cuban exiles to launch an invasion (bay of pigs)
      • Cuban Missile Crisis would soon happen & US would tighten their economic embargo
        • This would actually force Cuban ties with Russia even tighter
  • By the end of the ‘60’s would nationalize all sectors of their economy
    • First in the “America’s” to adopt command economy
    • Government owned all means of production, set production goals and prices
  • 1964 directed all resources to the sugar industry
    • Wanted to double production to 10 million tons by 1970 harvest
    • Reached 8 million, but made Cuba more dependent on sugar
  • Various successes
    • Improved living conditions
    • Adult and child literacy went up
    • Improved public health
    • Unemployment fell
    • Decreased income inequality
  • Institutionalization of a Soviet style (1971-1985)
    • Sugar campaign damaged other parts of economy
    • Faced economic and political change
    • Embraced Soviet model to achieve this
      • 1976 new constitution
    • April ’80 6 dissidents drove through the gates of the Peruvian embassy, 10,000 would follow within days
    • Jimmy Carter announced the acceptance of Cubans
      • 125,000 would reach the US shores
      • Allowed Castro to rid of criminals and revolutionaries
    • 1976 announced soviet style “2nd five year plan”
      • Productivity bonuses
      • Permitted peasants to sell food in markets
      • Economy grew until 1985 by roughly 7% annually
  • Rectification campaign (1986-1990)
    • Oil and gas lost half their value in ‘86 soviet economy went down
    • Mikhail Gorbachev insisted on repayment of Cuban loans
    • Castro put an end to farmers markets and material incentives
    • Also extended power within the political system
      • Used it to root out dissidents
    • Soviets dramatically reduced economic assistance to Cuba in 1990
    • Set up a rationing system for Cubans
    • A new era, independent of Soviet assistance would begin
u s and latin american relations
U.S. and Latin American Relations
  • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
    • Aimed to establish economic cooperation between the US and South America
    • “a vast cooperative effort, unparalleled in magnitude and nobility of purpose, to satisfy the basic needs of the American people for homes, work and land, health and schools…”
    • Policy goal: “only when every form of tyranny—either despotic rule at home or domination from abroad—is driven from the hemisphere.”
    • Food for Peace Program, offered grain, seed and other surplus foodstuffs as inducements to get to work on land-reform programs
u s and latin american relations1
U.S. and Latin American Relations
  • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
    • Pledge of coming to the defense of any nation whose independence was endangered
    • Increase food for peace program
      • Food for Peace Program, offered grain, seed and other surplus foodstuffs as inducements to get to work on land-reform programs
    • Provide economic aid to nations in need
    • Requested Latin American countries promote social change within their borders and called upon all American nations to move towards increased economic integration
    • “political freedom must accompany material progress”
u s and latin american relations2
U.S. and Latin American Relations
  • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • Proposed a 10 year plan involving “a suitable standard of living, dignity and freedom, liberty and progress, allowing the American revolution guide the struggles of people everywhere-not with an imperialism of force or fear but the rule of courage and freedom and hope for the future of man”
    • an annual increase of 2.5% in per capita income,
    • the establishment of democratic governments,
    • the elimination of adult illiteracy by 1970
    • price stability, to avoid inflation or deflation
    • more equitable income distribution, land reform, and
    • economic and social planning.
  • First, the plan called for Latin American countries to pledge a capital investment of $80 billion over 10 years. The United States agreed to supply or guarantee $20 billion within one decade.
  • Second, Latin American delegates required the participating countries to draw up comprehensive plans for national development. These plans were then to be submitted for approval by an inter-American board of experts.
  • Third, tax codes had to be changed to demand "more from those who have most" and land reform was to be implemented.
u s and latin american relations3
U.S. and Latin American Relations
    • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • U.S. aid to Latin America
    • Economic assistance to Latin America nearly tripled between fiscal year 1960 and fiscal year 1961. Between 1962 and 1967 the US supplied $1.4 billion per year to Latin America.
    • Aid to Latin America dropped sharply in the late 1960s, especially when Richard Nixon entered the White House.
    • Amount of aid totaled $22.3 billion.
    • Latin American countries still had to pay off their debt to the US and other first world countries.
    • Profits usually returned to the US,
u s and latin american relations4
U.S. and Latin American Relations
    • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • The Other Side
    • To many experts, the foreign aid program was a sham since five times more dollars were leaving Brazil in the form of earnings, dividends and royalties paid to American companies than entering the country as direct investments.
    • Brazilians referred to the program as being one in which it was Brazil that was giving foreign aid to the United States after tax credits, assistance in locating and other privileges given to foreign firms were taken into account.
u s and latin american relations5
U.S. and Latin American Relations
    • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • Military
    • Kennedy administration, between 1961 and 1963 suspended economic and/or broke off diplomatic relations with several countries which had dictatorships, including Argentina, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Peru.
    • Under President Johnson, in March 1964 the US approved a military coup in Brazil
    • In 1965 the US dispatched 24,000 troops to the Dominican Republic to stop a possible left-wing take over under.
u s and latin american relations6
U.S. and Latin American Relations
    • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • Rockefeller Study
    • 1969, President Richard Nixon commissioned a study to assess the state of Latin America. There was a lack of interest for the region in the late 1960s to early 1970s.
    • The Rockefeller report suggested a reduction of U.S. involvement, because there was little the United States should or could do toward changing the political atmosphere in other countries, there was no reason to attempt to use economic aid as a political tool.
    • This was the justification to reduce economic aid in Latin America.
    • The report recommended creating more effective aid programs.
u s and latin american relations7
U.S. and Latin American Relations
    • Kennedy: Alliance for Progress
  • Successes/Failures/Results
    • Regional output per capita in Latin America in the 1960s was 2.6%, exceeding the Alliance for Progress goal of 2.5%.
    • GDP growth rate per capita in the region reached 2.9% in the latter half of the 1960s and accelerated to 3.3% in the 1970s.
    • Overall nine countries (including Brazil and Mexico) reached the target goal, ten nations did not reach the goal, and only Haiti had lower growth.
    • Adult illiteracy was reduced, people attending universities doubled or even tripled, secondary education also showed increases, one out of every four school-age children were provided with an extra food ration.
    • Saw the start of long-range reform, improvements in land use and distribution, slightly improved tax laws and administration, creation of central planning agencies, and greater local efforts to provide housing, education, and financial institutions.
    • Health clinics were built across Latin America. However, success in improving health care was hindered by population growth.
    • The traditional elites resisted any land reform.
    • Minimum wage laws were created but the minimum wages were set so low as to have no appreciable effect on the wages received, or minimum wage laws encouraged employers to use labor-saving machinery.
    • In Latin America during the 1960s thirteen constitutional governments were replaced by military dictatorships. this was a failure of the Alliance for Progress.
    • The Alliance for Progress achieved a short-lived public relations success. It also had real but limited economic advances.But by the early 1970s the program was widely viewed as a failure.
    • The program failed for three reasons:
      • Latin American nations were unwilling to implement needed reforms, particularly in land reform.
      • Presidents after Kennedy were less supportive of the program.
      • The amount of money was not enough for an entire hemisphere: $20 billion averaged out to only $10 per Latin American.
us domestic policies
US Domestic Policies
  • Foreign Policy greatly impacted domestic policy
    • 1950’s “American Dream”: home in suburbs, job security in large corporation, T.V. and a new car
  • Military Industrial Complex
    • “American Dream” supported by Military Investors
    • Increased military spending after fall of China and Korean War
    • Department of Defense became a primary customer of large companies
      • ‘50’s, 40,000 defense contractors
      • ‘60’s, ½ of all government expenditures went to military
      • ‘70’s, D.O.D had more economic assets than the 75 largest corporations in the U.S.
    • Permanent war economy
    • ‘56 recession eased by putting $ into D.O.D. not public programs
    • Eisenhower warned U.S. of this problem upon leaving office
us domestic policies1
US Domestic Policies
  • Middle Class
    • Real weekly earning increased 50% for factory workers
    • 1960, 30% was middle class opposed to 9% in 1940
    • Increased H.S. graduation rates and Increased college enrollment
  • Televised Society
    • 1952 election, 1st candidate used T.V. advertising
    • 1960 election, Kennedy verses Nixon, outcome was based on appearance
truman domestic policies
Truman Domestic Policies
  • Truman's domestic policies dealt with three major issues: administration of the modern American presidency, a legislative program known as the Fair Deal, and Republican accusations of internal subversion and corruption
  • During the New Deal and World War II the government became too large; set the lines of policy, he expected support from assistants
  • Created the Council of Economic Advisers, National Security Council, Department of Defense, and created the Central Intelligence Agency.
  • “Fair Deal”
    • promised development of tried-and-true New Deal themes proposed federal control of prices, credit, commodities, exports, wages, and rents; a broadening of civil rights laws; low-cost housing; and a 75-cent minimum wage. It asked repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act, which had passed over a presidential veto in 1947 and which outlawed industry-wide strikes, closed shops, and mass picketing; made unions liable to suits; required union leaders, before they could use the National Labor Relations Board, the Fair Deal promised increased coverage for Social Security, federal aid to education, and compulsory health insurance.
  • Most of the Fair Deal did not go through as the time was not right for the Fair Deal, in either 1945 or 1949. In the immediate postwar years, the desire to relax, to have done with challenges, governed the popular mood; the exertions of the New Deal era followed by those of wartime had been too much.
truman domestic policies1
Truman Domestic Policies
  • Fair Deal Continued…
  • The Fair Deal scored a triumph in the protection of civil rights of black Americans establishing the Committee on Civil Rights, which presented its report, To Secure These Rights
  • Called for a new law against lynching, a federal fair-employment-practices committee, an end to segregation in interstate transportation, and protection of the right to vote. None of these proposals were enacted, and had to await later times
  • Integration of the armed forces begun in 1948 by executive order reached completion
truman domestic policies2
Truman Domestic Policies
  • Continued…
  • Accusations by the Republicans that the president made little effort to clean the Communists out of government departments and that he condoned and covertly supported corruption among members of the White House staff and within government departments
  • Established the Federal Employee Loyalty Program in 1947, by executive order
  • One of the president's principal errors was handling the corruption within his own staff
    • Freezers
    • Mink coat
  • Whatever enthusiasm remained for the Fair Deal was lost, after the summer of 1950, amidst preoccupations with the Korean War
truman domestic policies3
Truman Domestic Policies
  • Fair Deal Successes
    • Won passage of a moderately effective public housing and slum-clearance bill in 1949, an increase in the minimum wage that same year, and a significant expansion of Social Security in 1950
eisenhower domestic policies
Eisenhower Domestic Policies
  • 1950s, a time when Americans did not have to worry about depression or war, Americans spent their time enjoying the benefits of a booming economy. Millions of families got their first television and their second car and enjoyed new pastimes like hula hoops or transistor radios. Young people went to drive-in movies or malt shops, often wearing the latest fashions—pegged pants for men, poodle skirts for women.
eisenhower domestic policies1
Eisenhower Domestic Policies
  • Didn’t believe president should be a source of social reform
  • Dynamic Conservatism or “Modern Republicanism”
    • Budget cuts
    • Government support of Big Business
    • Return of federal functions back to state and local government
  • “Conservative with $, liberal with human beings”
  • 3 obstacles didn’t allow to reduce spending
    • Growing demand for military and foreign aid
    • Negative effects on economy when federal government reduced spending
    • Unacceptable political costs
  • Saw highest peacetime deficit  $266 billion in ‘53 to $286 billion in ‘59
eisenhower domestic policies2
Eisenhower Domestic Policies
  • Modern Republicanism
    • Preserved individual freedom and the market economy yet insured that government would provide necessary assistance to workers who had lost their jobs or to senior citizens. He intended to lead the country "down the middle of the road between the unfettered power of concentrated wealth . . . and the unbridled power of statism or partisan interests."
    • Created legislation that expanded Social Security, increased the minimum wage, and created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. He also supported government construction of low-income housing but favored more limited spending and created the Interstate Highway program, a 41,000-mile road system
eisenhower domestic policies3
Eisenhower Domestic Policies
  • Prosperity and Poverty
    • President gave a higher priority to balancing the budget
    • During the Eisenhower presidency, personal income increased by 45 percent
    • Many families used their purchasing power to buy new houses, frequently in suburban developments
    • Consumers also used their income to acquire many new household items
    • One in every five Americans lived in poverty by the end of the decade
    • Forty million Americans were poor when Eisenhower left office. The South had almost half of the country's poor families
    • Poverty increased in northern cities, especially because of the migration of African Americans who left the South for cities like Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland because new farm machines had taken away job opportunities
    • It was not until the 1960s that affluent Americans rediscovered the poverty amid the prosperity
eisenhower domestic policies4
Eisenhower Domestic Policies
  • McCarthy
    • most difficult political problems involved Senator Joseph R. McCarthy
  • Civil Rights
    • greatest failure as President was his handling of civil rights
    • case of Brown v. Board of Education
    • refused to endorse it
    • Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
    • dispatched federal troops and explained that he had a solemn obligation to enforce the law
    • 1957
    • signed the first civil rights legislation since the period of Reconstruction after the Civil War
    • provided new federal protection for voting rights
    • African Americans simply could not vote
    • because of literacy tests, poll taxes, or other obstacles
    • Yet the law required a jury trial to determine whether a citizen had been denied his or her right to vote. In southern states, where African Americans could not serve on juries, such trials were not likely to insure black access to the vote
jfk domestic policies
JFK Domestic Policies
  • “New Frontier”  3 Main Points
    • More sophisticated sense of economy
    • Emphasis on social welfare programs
    • Cold War policies and space programs
  • 8 goals of new frontier
    • Increased aid for education – defeated
    • Medical care for elderly – defeated, but Johnson eventually pushes it through
    • Increased in minimum wage – passed
    • Urban reforms – modest success
    • Civil Rights – NONE, bro Robert was actually the civil rights advocate, not JFK, he was concerned with southern democrat vote
    • End of Poverty – N0
    • Major Tax cuts – Defeated
    • Cold War Goals – Yes, space program and military spending
  • Man of Rhetoric and little action
  • Accomplished little in way of legislation
  • “New Economics” – seen as negative at time but proved to be true through out time, but he had already passed
    • Increased federal spending
    • Trade expansion act
    • Stabilize interest rates
    • Major tax cuts
jfk domestic policies1
JFK Domestic Policies
  • Economic and Legislative Challenges
    • Did manage an increase in the minimum wage
    • Attempts to cut taxes and broaden civil rights were watered down on Capitol Hill.
    • The proposal for a Department of Urban Affairs was killed by southern Democrats who thought Kennedy would appoint an African-American as first secretary
    • On the positive side of the ledger, the government undertook regional development in Appalachia, an initiative that would have a major impact over the next three decades in reducing poverty in the region
jfk domestic policies2
JFK Domestic Policies
  • Civil Rights
    • Appointed federal judges in the South who were acceptable to southern Democratic senators. These judges were opposed to civil rights enforcement, and their record was much worse than that those judges appointed in the south by Republican President Eisenhower
    • James Meredith, enroll at the traditionally white University of Mississippi, Kennedy, through his brother Robert, the attorney general, federalized the Mississippi National Guard, Meredith finally enrolled on October 1, 1962
    • Political strategy was to delay sending a civil rights bill to Congress until his second term
    • May 3, 1963, Birmingham, Alabama, police attacked peaceful black demonstrators, violence in Birmingham proved that Kennedy's piecemeal approach to civil rights had failed
    • Since Kennedy had taken office, the world had seen the negative side of America -- intolerance and oppression
    • President needed the white Southern vote to win reelection in 1964. So Kennedy adopted a cautious approach to civil rights, emphasizing enforcement of existing laws over the creation of new ones
johnson domestic policies
Johnson Domestic Policies
  • Boisterous, arrogant, and driven
  • Great ability to manipulate colleagues
  • “Johnson treatment” do whatever to get them to agree with him
  • Great Society – dismal failure in too many ways
  • 2 halves: race and impoverishment
  • 2 presidencies: Vietnam and Great Society
  • 5 major components that stemmed from 2 halves
    • Civil rights
    • Poverty
    • Health and education
    • Model cities
    • Quality of life
johnson domestic policies1
Johnson Domestic Policies
  • Civil Rights
    • Since WWII white voters chose racial peace over racial justice
    • 1964 Civil Rights Act
      • Barred discrimination based on race in public accommodations
      • Authorized Justice Department to bring suit against state that discriminated against women and minorities
      • Guaranteed trial opportunities in work place
    • Voting Rights act of 1965: prompted by Selma, 15000 voters eligible to vote and only 335 registered
      • Eliminated barriers to registration, i.e. literacy tests
      • Mississippi black voter registration jumped from 6 to 44%
      • 5 days later a riot broke out in Watts County
    • Civil Rights Act of 1968
      • Barred discrimination in housing
      • Federal crime to cross state lines to incite a riot
johnson domestic policies2
Johnson Domestic Policies
  • Poverty
    • This was Johnson’s own vision, not responding to public outcry
    • Believed it was his pathway to presidential greatness
    • ‘65 to ‘72
      • $128 billion on Vietnam
      • $15 billion on poverty
      • $50 to 60 per year for poverty
      • $300,000 to kill one Vietcong
    • Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
      • Created job corps – like CCC of New Deal
      • Created Work Study
      • Head Start for poor preschool children
    • Found much of the problem to b cultural not economic
    • Ideal program would cost $30 billion and LBJ was not willing to pay that
    • More poverty was studied more was found and became complex
    • Launched poverty fight, but never say it through
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Johnson Domestic Policies
  • Health Care and Education
    • Medicare, 93% of all Sr. Citizens enrolled
    • Medicaid
    • Title 1 Schools – $ based on population in poverty
  • Model Cities
    • Urban Renewal
    • Housing and Urban Development Act of ‘65
      • Provide low income houses
    • Schools, parks, playgrounds, community center
    • Safe streets and Crime Control Act
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Johnson Domestic Policies
  • Quality of Life
    • Most popular
    • Consumer rights
    • Crime control
    • Beautification pushed by LadyBird
  • Biggest issue of why poor and minorities could not move up: little demand for unskilled labor
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Johnson Domestic Policies
  • 1965-1967  89th Congress
    • Achieve goals of Fair Deal
    • Achieved goals of New Frontier
    • Medicare
    • Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    • H.U.D program
    • Highway Beautification
    • Air and H2O regulation
    • Ended 1920’s immigration quota
    • New city planning programs
nixon domestic policies
Nixon Domestic Policies
  • "New Federalism" -- a system which directed money and power away from the federal bureaucracy and toward states and municipalities. This system, Nixon said, could respond more efficiently to the needs of the people
    • Opposed big government programs and fought to restore political authority to the local level
    • Locally controlled desegregation
    • Set up biracial state committees to plan and implement school desegregation
    • Nixon increased the number of female appointments to administration positions and created a Presidential Task Force on Women's Rights
    • Two new agencies, the Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency, to oversee environmental matters
    • Stood by the principle of fiscal efficiency and smaller, less costly federal government
    • Revenue sharing, which redirected funds to the state and municipal levels. The federal government would collect taxes and the local governments would spend the money
    • State and Local Assistance Act of 1972 initially delivered $4 billion per year in matching funds to states and municipalities. The program, which distributed some $83 billion dollars before it was killed by Ronald Reagan in 1986, proved enormously popular
    • Nixon succeeded in redirecting power away from the federal government. Some argue that his efforts benefited women and minorities, resulted in a cleaner environment and provided money and power for local initiatives
    • New Federalism, however, withered during the Watergate scandal
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Nixon Domestic Policies
  • Race was the most important domestic issue
  • By 1970, less than 10 percent of black school-children attended all-black schools by that time, a major advance from the preceding administration
  • Nixon began using racial classifications and numerical goals in implementing their desegregation programs—the first example of "affirmative action."
  • Crime rates soared
    • four measures: the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968), the Organized Crime Control Act, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (1970), and the District of Columbia Criminal Procedures Act
    • No appreciable dent was made in the crime rate
  • Nixon eliminated the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), the coordinating agency for the so-called War on Poverty
  • To fight poverty Nixon passed a welfare reform measure that gave the national government complete control over welfare programs for the aged, blind, and disabled, and that provided more than $2 billion in additional payments in the welfare programs annually
  • The Food Stamp Act of 1964 was greatly expanded to provide billions of dollars of purchasing power to the nation's needy
  • Nixon passed an initiative to provide the states and cities with $30 billion in federal revenues over a five-year period. Responding to the demands of environmentalists he created of the Council on Environmental Quality (1969), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1970), and the Environmental Protection Agency (1970). New laws provided tougher standards for water and air quality
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Nixon Domestic Policies
  • Middle of 1971, unemployment reached 6.2 percent while inflation raged unchecked
  • New Economic Policy (NEP)
    • Immediately and enormously popular
    • Announced a wage-and-price freeze, tax cuts, and a temporary closure of the "gold window," preventing other nations from demanding American gold in exchange for American dollars
    • Called for a 10 percent import tax
  • Nixon was the beneficiary of some good luck. An economic boom, which began late in 1971made his policies look effective
  • Downturn resumed, however, in 1973 with a shortage of food & fuel inflation
  • Oil prices were rising even before the onset of the Arab oil boycott in October of 1973. Ultimately, inflation would climb to 12.1 percent in 1974
  • When Nixon left office, the economy was in the tank, with rising unemployment and inflation, lengthening gas lines, and a crashing stock market
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Nixon Domestic Policies
  • Social Legislation
    • Created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
    • Signed amendments to the 1967 Clean Air Act calling for reductions in automobile emissions and the national testing of air quality
    • 1972 Noise Control Act, the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, the 1973 Endangered Species Act, and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Much to criticize in Nixon's record
    • impounded billions of dollars Congress had authorized to implement the Clean Air Act
    • subjected environmental regulation to cost-benefit analyses which highlighted the economic costs of preserving a healthy ecosystem
  • Supplemental Security Income (SSI) provided a guaranteed income for elderly and disabled citizens. The Nixon years also brought large increases in Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid benefits