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“The Spanish Encounter” “The biggest population shift of modern times has been the colonization of the New World by the Europeans, and the resulting conquest, numerical reduction, or complete disappearance of most of Native Americans…” -Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel.

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Populations in the Americas 1500


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    1. “The Spanish Encounter”“The biggest population shift of modern times has been the colonization of the New World by the Europeans, and the resulting conquest, numerical reduction, or complete disappearance of most of Native Americans…”-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel

    2. Populations in the Americas 1500 • Pre-Columbian population: nobody really knows. Estimates range from 10 million to over 100 million. Many scholars take a mid-point of about 50 million • Aztec Empire 6-10 million • Inca Empire: 10 million • Caribbean 225,000-6 million (probably on the higher end)

    3. Population in Europe • About 80 million before the Black Plague (reduced by 1/3) • Americas population roughly comparable to Europe’s—so how or how not was the Encounter a meeting of equals?

    4. Population reduction • Pre-Columbian population: nobody really knows. Estimates range from 10 million to over 100 million. Many scholars take a mid-point of about 50 million • By 1650 only 5-8 million indigenous people survived, a 90-95% reduction

    5. Where the Indians died

    6. What do you think motivated the Europeans to expand overseas? • Why did they not just expand over land? • Take 2 minutes to write down your thoughts.

    7. Empires: Portugal • Search for Maritime route to Asia • Advanced naval technology: caravels, carracks, astrolabe and compass • Established fortresses along the Gold Coast – sugar plantations and African slave labor • Indian Ocean trade and Da Gama: Malindi, Sofala and Kilwa, Calicut and Goa, and later Macao • Atlantic trade with conquest of Brazil – sugar plantation

    8. Empires: Spain • Reconquista ended with the fall of Granada • Inquisition • Columbus’ voyage • Arrival of Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru • Took over existing tributary empires: labor (mita), silver, gold, and foodstuffs • Demographic impact: disease, death, and mestizos

    9. Early Human Migrations

    10. Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations

    11. The Aztecs

    12. Lands of the Aztecs

    13. Aztec View of Tenochtitlan

    14. Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas

    15. Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden:15ft. to 30ft. wide

    16. Tenochtitlan - Chinampas

    17. Aztec Writing Aztec Math

    18. Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar

    19. Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God

    20. Heart Sacrifice

    21. Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan

    22. Aztec Gold

    23. The Incas

    24. Lands of the Incas

    25. Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the Inca(11,000 ft. above sea level)

    26. Machu Picchu

    27. Incan Suspension Bridges

    28. Incan Terrace Farming

    29. Incan Digging Sticks

    30. Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated by the Incans

    31. Produce from a Typical Incan Market

    32. The Quipu: An Incan Database

    33. Inca Gold & Silver

    34. Maritime Empires • Who? Why? • Compare to land based empires

    35. Voyages of “Discovery”

    36. Brazil: Plantation colony • Portuguese due to Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 • Local indians wiped out then African slave labor used to support the plantation complex (sugar) • Largest producer of sugar in world first half of 17th C.

    37. Population shift affected Africa as well • An estimated 11 million African slaves were brought to the New World, the vast majority of them to the Caribbean and Brazil Why?