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Inner City Problems and Solutions
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  1. Inner City Problems and Solutions These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005

  2. What is the inner city? • Why did inner city areas decline? • What problems were created by inner city decline? • What is urban redevelopment? • What is urban renewal? ~ The London Docklands Learning objectives

  3. Inner city

  4. Traditional characteristics of the inner city

  5. What is the inner city? • Why did inner city areas decline? • What problems were created by inner city decline? • What is urban redevelopment? • What is urban renewal? ~ The London Docklands Learning objectives

  6. Impact of industrial decline

  7. What is the inner city? • Why did inner city areas decline? • What problems were created by inner city decline? • What is urban redevelopment? • What is urban renewal? ~ The London Docklands Learning objectives

  8. Decline of the inner city

  9. What is the inner city? • Why did inner city areas decline? • What problems were created by inner city decline? • What is urban redevelopment? • What is urban renewal? ~ The London Docklands Learning objectives

  10. What is urban redevelopment? Residents are moved out and the buildings are demolished to make way for new developments.

  11. Urban redevelopment What were the advantages of building tower blocks? After the Second World War, the British Government realised that they needed more housing due to bomb damaged and poor-quality terraced housing, as well as predicted population growth. This was especially important in inner city areas. Therefore, in the 1950s and 1960s, poor-quality terraces were knocked down and replaced with tower blocks. Tower blocks were cheap to build and provided a large number of dwellings in a small space.

  12. Urban redevelopment Tower blocks were built in the inner city and on the edge of cities. The buildings in the suburbs were a mixture of low-rise buildings and high-rise tower blocks. tower blocks and low-rise buildings in the suburbs (Roehampton, London) inner city tower block in Spitalfields, London

  13. The problems with tower blocks ‘I wake up at 6am with the sound of the couple next door shouting at each other. I can hear everything they say because the walls are so thin! I try to get out of the flat as much as possible. It is damp and mould is growing on the kitchen walls. I worry about Jake’s health. Jake is becoming hyperactive in this place. Although I try to encourage him to go out and play, there isn’t a park nearby. I am worried he will get involved with the older kids that hang around the lifts.’ Mother aged 23 ‘I live on the 18th floor of a block of flats. I am 72 years old and find it difficult to get around. The lift is often broken. I am afraid to go out with all the youths hanging around the stairwell. Sometimes I feel like a prisoner in my own home!’ Grandmother aged 72

  14. Urban redevelopment question • Comment on the message given in this cartoon. • Explain where and why many tower blocks were built after the Second World War.

  15. What is the inner city? • Why did inner city areas decline? • What problems were created by inner city decline? • What is urban redevelopment? • What is urban renewal? ~ The London Docklands Learning objectives

  16. Urban renewal Urban renewal is the attempt to regenerate the inner city through industrial, housing and community schemes. The Government has used a variety of strategies including the creation of Urban Development Corporations. UDCs focused on inner city areas that had vast amounts of derelict land and buildings. They had the power to acquire the land and convert buildings. London Docklands, Merseyside, Trafford Park, Teeside and Cardiff Bay are just some of the areas that were targeted.

  17. Why did the Docklands decline? • The River Thames became increasingly silted and as the boats became progressively larger, they found it difficult to come so far upstream (look at your atlas to check the position of the Docklands on the Thames). • Therefore the docks were moved downstream to places such as Tilbury. • Containerization meant that fewer dockers were needed. • A general decline in manufacturing meant that portside industries, such as food refining, closed down. • Sub-standard and low-quality housing such as tower blocks were built in the 1950s and 1960s. These were built to replace the housing damaged by bombs in the Second World War. What impact would these factors have on the migration to and from the London Docklands?

  18. The Docklands before its regeneration 1970-1980 30,000 jobs lost 198150% of Docklands derelict (over 1000 hectares) 21% unemployment; male unemployment was 24% (twice the national average). one third of housing unsatisfactory for human habitation inadequate infrastructure of roads, rail, telephone and cable lines; the Docklands was kept deliberately inaccessible to protect the goods that were being stored.

  19. Problems created by the decline

  20. London Docklands Development Corporation Aims of the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC), 1981-1998: • To economically regenerate the area by primarily attracting private investment. • To physically regenerate the environment of the Docklands to aid economic regeneration. • To improve the living conditions and prospects of the community of the Docklands.

  21. LDDC areas Wapping, Surrey Quays, Isle of Dogs, Royal Docks Tower Hamlets Newham Canary Wharf Royal Docks Surrey Quays Wapping Enterprise Zone Isle of Dogs Southwark Greenwich

  22. LDDC timeline

  23. Looking South East from Cabot Tower Match the labels to the photograph. we are here C A B West India Docks River Thames Millwall Docks

  24. camera N the Dome The London Docklands Poplar Docks What direction is the camera facing?

  25. LDDC project: success or failure? You are in charge of urban planning in Carsmouth and are considering regenerating the inner city dock area. You have decided to evaluate the LDDC urban renewal to see if you can learn from the successes and failures of this scheme. Using the evidence on the following slides, decide on the advantages and disadvantages of the LDDC project. Divide your answer into the following categories :- environment transport business local community

  26. Environmental and social changes

  27. The London Docklands: housing What does this graph tell you about the type of housing that was built in the Docklands after 1981?

  28. The London Docklands: local community 1. Describe the change in employment structure. 2. What could ‘other services’ include? 3. Only a small proportion of the original Docklands community are employed in the financial sector. Why?

  29. Changes to transport infrastructure What are the advantages and disadvantages of these developments?

  30. The London Docklands: business Canary Wharf, only three miles from The City, was conceived in the 1980s as a solution to rising rents in central London. The LDDC’s task was to attract private investment by improving the environment and infrastructure of the area. In the 1980s, the LDDC attracted £10 of private investment for every £1 they spent. Cabot Square in Canary Wharf Much of the office space in Canary Wharf remained empty until the late 1990s.The completion of the Jubilee Line in 2000 has certainly encouraged new investment in the area. All office and retail space is now leased.

  31. Types of businesses in Canary Wharf 18 office buildings, 63 000 workers – here are just a few examples!

  32. Canary Wharf – 2004 update Two new towers either side of One Canada Square, one for HSBC and the other for Citigroup, have been built. A 30-storey building next to the Jubilee line station has been built. This is filled by Clifford Chance who moved their 2,500 employees from The City to the Docklands in 2001.

  33. Canary Wharf - 2005 update The new Barclays headquarters building at Churchill Place adjoining Canada Square will be completed. Reuters will lease the whole of 30 The South Colonnade. BP will move its supply and trading division into 20 Canada Square. It is estimated that the number of people working in the Docklands will be 100,000. View from One Canada Square towards The City

  34. Are the changes for the better?

  35. Question With reference to an example you have studied, explain how planners have tried to improve the quality of life in inner city areas.

  36. How good is your inner city knowledge?

  37. Key ideas Poor quality housing and modernisation of industry are major reasons for the decline of inner city areas. A vicious circle of poverty is a result of inner city decline. Urban redevelopment resulted in the demolishing of inner city terraced housing and the building of tower blocks. Tower blocks have advantages and disadvantages. Urban renewal promotes social, environmentaland economic regeneration. The London Docklands is a successful example of inner city regeneration.