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Funding Proposal Training Session

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  1. Funding Proposal Training Session BTCC Phan Thiet, March 22-23, 2011

  2. Background A proposal is not simply a document prepared for a donor. It is your guide during implementation of the project and your guide to monitor and evaluate the project.

  3. Before you begin… You must do the necessary research, thinking and planning before you start writing a funding proposal. • Be clear about why and who you are writing the proposal for • Understand the donor (i.e. WUSC) • What does the donor want to achieve in terms of development? • How will your project support their aims? • Know your organization’s strengths and capacity

  4. Know the Donor • Research – donors’ interest, focus, past work and strategies • Follow their proposal guidelines • Proposal should be persuasive, technically correct and detailed – BE SPECIFIC

  5. Know Yourself • STRATEGIC PLANNING • Does your organization have a clear vision and mission? • SWOT analysis – strengths, weaknesses, external environment (opportunities and threats) • Have you documented past accomplishments? • Do you have experienced and knowledgeable staff? • Do you have the capacity to responsibly handle the amount of money you are asking for?

  6. No one can write a proposal alone. You must involve different members of your team and it must include a lot of brainstorming, meeting and collaboration. This cannot be done in isolation.

  7. Steps in Developing a Proposal • Needs Assessment • Problem Analysis • Develop Logical Framework • Content Development • Budget Development

  8. Proposed Agenda • Needs Assessment (9:00am – 10:00am) • Problem Analysis (10:00am – 11:00am) BREAK! • Develop Logical Framework (1:00pm– 2:00) • Content Development (2:00 pm – 3:00 pm) • Budget Development (3:00pm – 4:00pm)

  9. Step 1 Needs Assessment

  10. Needs Assessment • The process of defining “why” in the project by collecting and analyzing information on the community and other stakeholders • Identifies needs of community to design and develop a strategy to address those needs appropriately

  11. Why do we do assessments? • To understand the situation and current context of an area • To identify opportunities, vulnerabilities, threats and resources • To decide the feasibility of carrying out the project and setting priorities • Provides information or data which can be used later to measure change

  12. Methodology • Before designing your needs assessment and to help determine the types of assessment methods to use, consider your time frame, information already available and the resources (technical, financial and human) required to implement the methodologies • Both quantitative and qualitative methods can be used for needs assessments

  13. Sources of Data

  14. Needs Assessment and Proposal - ??? • Important finding or results from the needs assessment should be summarized in the “Rationale” section of proposal, if possible.  Strengthens your identification of the problem and boosts your organization’s ability to address it • A description of the needs assessment that will be conducted should be included in the “Activities,” “Project Management and Monitoring” and “Budget” sections of the proposal

  15. Proposed Agenda • Needs Assessment (9:00am – 10:00am) • Problem Analysis (10:00am – 11:00am) BREAK! • Develop Logical Framework (1:00pm– 2:00) • Content Development (2:00 pm – 3:00 pm) • Budget Development (3:00pm – 4:00pm)

  16. Step 2 Problem Analysis

  17. Problem Analysis • This stage is very important to make sure that there is logic in our project. • We may have a lot of information, but we need to organize this information and decide on the best way to start.

  18. Step 1: Identify the Problem • Choosing the problem is based on the degree to which resolving the problem will result in a fundamental change • The scope of the problem – how large and complex is it? • Identify the community that this is a priority problem • Your organization’s principles • The interest of donors and opportunities for resources and action

  19. Step 2: Use Causal Tree to Analyze the Problem • A causal tree is a visual tool used to analyze the problem.

  20. Causal Tree Consequences Core Problem Causes

  21. Problem Tree Structure Larger and direct causes of the main problem are placed underneath the main problem. Main Problem Cause 3 Cause 1 Cause 2

  22. Larger and direct effects of the main problem are placed above the main problem. Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3 Main Problem

  23. High mortality of children under 5 Additional health-care costs for families Abnormal physical and mental development of child High malnutrition rates for children under 5 in Jumla District Inadequate food provided to children Poor nutritional quality of food provided to children High incidence of infectious diseases Low agriculture production Low income of families Lack of knowledge Inadequate health care services High soil erosion No income-generating activities Do not attend nutrition classes Clinics far from village Doctors don’t want to work in rural areas

  24. Phrasing the Problem A problem is a negative situation that exists that affects the life of people and makes them more vulnerable. A problem is not the lack of a solution, but a negative situation that exists. Try not to use expressions such as “lack of…”, “there isn’t…” because we then lose focus that a solution does exist.

  25. x A health centre isn’t available. √ The mortality rates are very high. x There aren’t enough teachers and primary schools. √ The children in the area present a high rate of illiteracy. X There aren’t any pesticides available. √ The crops are destroyed by plagues and parasites.

  26. “If / Then” Process • This is to test the logic of your causes and consequences. • Start at the root cause that you have identified… • “If there is high soil erosion”, then there will be “low agriculture production.” • Continue doing this process all the way to the final consequence. This will show where your logic may or may not work.

  27. Objective Analysis Now we analyze the possible actions that can be carried out to solve the direct beneficiaries’ problems. The problem tree is changed into an objectives tree by turning it upside down. The main objective is to find out “what has to be done” to improve the situation.

  28. High mortality of children under 5 = High malnutrition rates for children under 5 in Jumla District GOAL = OUTCOME Inadequate food provided to children = OUTPUTS Low agriculture production ACTIVITIES High soil erosion INPUTS

  29. Relationship between problem and objective analysis Problem Tree Objective Tree Effects Focal Problem Causes Development Objectives Project Purpose / Immediate Objective Immediate Results / Outputs Activities

  30. An objective (or solution) is a positive desired situation that is constructed to solve an existing problem. The problem tree focussed on “cause and effect” relationships. The objectives tree focusses on “means-end” relationships. We begin at the top and work our way down asking ourselves what we want to achieve and “how” we can achieve that.

  31. Reword all problems and turn them into objectives. Problems worded as a negative condition are rephrased to become a positive condition to be achieved in the future (= objective). Remember that the reason for implementing a project is to achieve results – to achieve a change.

  32. Negative  Positive Statements -->> Food shortages -->> Sufficient food supply -->> Low income of -->> Increased households livelihoods -->> Low participation -->> Increased of women empowerment of women

  33. Proposed Agenda • Needs Assessment (9:00am – 10:00am) • Problem Analysis (10:00am – 11:00am) BREAK! • Develop Logical Framework (1:00pm– 2:00) • Content Development (2:00 pm – 3:00 pm) • Budget Development (3:00pm – 4:00pm)

  34. Step 3 Logical Framework Model

  35. Logical Framework Model • Logical framework model is a method for organizing your project graphically. • This will be a critical tool to complete several sections of your proposal, including “Project Goal and Specific Objectives,” “Project Activities” and “Project Management and Monitoring” sections • Provides details of what project will accomplish, how it will accomplish it and how you will know whether it has been accomplished • Provides a detailed visual overview of project and how it will be evaluated – useful for implementation

  36. Working with the Logical Framework Model • Logical Framework Model Overview • Inputs and Activities • Outputs, Objectives and Goals • Risks and Assumptions • Means of Verification • Beneficiaries • Activity 1: Objective-Setting

  37. Inputs Activities Outputs Objectives Goal Planned Work Intended Results Logical Framework Model Overview The components of the logical model are linked following a causal hierarchy the inputs and activities determine the outputs, which in turn determine whether the objectives have been met, which determine the impact of the project in meeting project goals.

  38. Inputs • refers to any resources – human, financial, material, technological and informational – that are required in order to complete an activity to produce the outputs.

  39. Activities • specific actions taken to produce the outputs needed to meet the short-term objectives and long-term goal

  40. the steps you plan to take in order to transform inputs into outputs. depending on the project, there may be many instances when inputs are transformed into outputs that will in turn become inputs for another activity. . Activities Outputs Inputs Activities

  41. Activities • details are important in this section of the framework. • give specific start and completion dates for each activity and the duration of time you expect each activity to elapse whenever possible. • list the key person(s) responsible for each of these tasks • make it clear throughout the proposal how each activity will produce the intended output

  42. Outputs • immediate tangible results and deliverables that you can guarantee upon completion of the project • should be verifiable, measurable and finite and list an expected date of completion.

  43. Objectives • expected outcomes of the project that are not recognized immediately, but are achieved after the project has been in effect for a short period of time. • generated by outputs and often refer to near-term impacts such as changes in behavior, knowledge, skills and status. • should be clear how the project objectives support the longer-term project goal

  44. SMART Principle A helpful guide in developing objectives is to use SMART. SMART Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time- Bound

  45. Specificto avoid differing interpretations Measurableto monitor and evaluate progress (preferably numerical) Appropriateto the problems, goal and your organization Realistic achievable, yet challenging and meaningful Time-bound with a specific time for achieving them

  46. It is important that objectives be realistic, not just impressive, as lofty, unfounded objectives undercut the credibility of the entire project. Foundation Representative

  47. When writing objectives • Select action verbs that indicate a change and the direction that change will take • Avoid verbs that refer to activities or implementation strategies

  48. Appropriate Verbs for Objectives: - decrease - increase - strengthen - improve - enhance Inappropriate Verbs for Objectives: - train - provide - produce - establish / create - conduct

  49. Well-written objectives Identify: - WHO will be reached - WHAT change will be achieved - IN WHAT TIME PERIOD the change will be achieved - WHERE (in what location)

  50. Activity: Objective-Setting Objective-setting can be one of the most difficult tasks for a project team, however, it is also one of the most important components of a proposal.