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Chapter 9. Optimizing and Protecting Hard Drives. You Will Learn…. About supporting hard drives and making backups About viruses and other computer infestations, and how to protect against them How to troubleshoot hard drives. Managing Hard Drives.

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Optimizing and Protecting Hard Drives

you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • About supporting hard drives and making backups
  • About viruses and other computer infestations, and how to protect against them
  • How to troubleshoot hard drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

managing hard drives
Managing Hard Drives
  • Use Windows utilities to protect, optimize, and maintain hard drives
    • Defrag and Windows Disk Defragmenter
    • ScanDisk
    • Disk Cleanup
    • Disk Compression
    • Disk Caching
    • Making Backups
  • Access utilities from command prompt or Windows desktop

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

defrag command and windows disk defragmenter
Defrag Command and Windows Disk Defragmenter
  • Detects and repairs fragmentation, which can slow down access time and complicate recovery of a corrupted file
  • Defragment hard drive once a month

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scandisk
ScanDisk
  • Designed to replace Chkdsk command
  • Repairs cross-linked and lost clusters
  • Checks FAT for problems with long filenames and the directory tree
  • Scans the disk for bad sectors
  • Repairs problems with structure of a hard drive that has been compressed using Windows DriveSpace or DoubleSpace

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

cross linked and lost clusters
Cross-Linked and Lost Clusters

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scandisk results
ScanDisk Results

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scandisk in ms dos mode
ScanDisk in MS-DOS Mode

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk cleanup
Disk Cleanup

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk compression methods
Disk Compression Methods
  • Store data on hard drive in one big file
    • Manage writing of data and programs to that file
  • Rewrite data in files in mathematically coded format that uses less space

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk compression
Disk Compression
  • Disk compression in Windows XP and Windows 2000
    • Use the NTFS file system
  • Disk compression in Windows 9x
    • Use DriveSpace utility on a FAT 16 file system

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk cache
Disk Cache
  • Temporary storage area in RAM for data being read from or written to a hard drive
  • Speeds up access time to the drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk caching
Disk Caching

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk caching continued
Disk Caching (continued)
  • Hardware cache versus software cache
  • How disk caching methods have changed
    • DOS -SmartDrive
    • DOS with Windows 3.x - SmartDrive
    • Windows 9x - VCache
    • Windows NT/2000/XP –Cache Manager

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

making backups
Making Backups
  • Child, parent, grandparent method
  • Full, incremental, and differential backups
  • Scheduling backups
  • Backup software
  • Disk cloning software
  • Planning for disaster recovery

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

child parent grandparent method
Child, Parent, Grandparent Method

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

full incremental and differential backups
Full, Incremental, and Differential Backups
  • Full
    • Backs up all data from hard drive
  • Incremental
    • Backs up only files that have changed or been created since last backup
  • Differential
    • Backs up files that have changed or been created since the last full backup
    • Faster backup & restore time period

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scheduling backups
Scheduling Backups

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scheduling backups continued
Scheduling Backups (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

scheduling backups continued1
Scheduling Backups (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

backup software
Backup Software
  • Comes with most tape drives
  • Third-party software also available
  • Backup utilities are provided with Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

windows 2000 xp backup utility
Can perform immediate backup from Backup tab

Can schedule repeated backups

Windows 2000/XP Backup Utility

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

disk cloning software
Disk Cloning Software
  • Replicates hard drive to a different computer or to another drive on the same computer
  • Examples
    • Drive Image by PowerQuest
    • ImageCast by Innovative Software
    • Norton Ghost by Symantec Corp

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

planning for disaster recovery
Planning for Disaster Recovery
  • Verify your recovery plan
  • Keep a record of regular backups
    • Folders or drives backed up
    • Date of the backup
    • Type of backup
    • Label identifying the tape, disk, or other media

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

viruses and other computer infestations
Viruses and Other Computer Infestations

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

understanding computer infestations
Understanding Computer Infestations
  • Where viruses hide
    • Boot sector viruses
    • File viruses
    • Multipartite viruses
  • Cloaking techniques
    • Polymorphic viruses
    • Encrypting viruses
    • Stealth viruses
  • Potential damage ranges from minor to major

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

how infestations spread
How Infestations Spread
  • User activities can increase susceptibility
  • Virus replicates
  • A Trojan horse gets into your computer
  • A worm gets into your computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

how a virus replicates
How a Virus Replicates

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

how a worm gets into your computer
How a Worm Gets into Your Computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

virus hoaxes
Virus Hoaxes
  • E-mail warnings about a nonexistent virus
  • Overload network traffic
  • Check Web sites that specialize in debunking virus hoaxes

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

protecting against computer infestations
Protecting Against Computer Infestations
  • Make backups
  • Use antivirus software regularly
  • Keep Windows current with updates and patches
  • Implement a firewall

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

protecting against computer infestations continued
Protecting Against Computer Infestations (continued)
  • Be aware of virus symptoms
  • Know what to do when you suspect a virus infestation
    • Run antivirus software
    • Check Web site of AV software manufacturer
  • Use antivirus software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

capabilities to look for when selecting antivirus software
Capabilities to Look for When Selecting Antivirus Software
  • Download software upgrades and virus definitions from the Internet
  • Automatically execute at startup
  • Detect macros in word-processing documents
  • Automatically monitor files being downloaded from the Internet
  • Send virus alerts to your e-mail address
  • Scan both automatically and manually

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

general troubleshooting guidelines
General Troubleshooting Guidelines
  • Make backups and keep them current
  • Run antivirus software regularly
  • Defragment files and scan the hard drive occasionally
  • Don’t smoke around your hard drive
  • Don’t leave the PC turned off for weeks or months at at time

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

general troubleshooting guidelines continued
General Troubleshooting Guidelines (continued)
  • High humidity can be dangerous for hard drives
  • Be gentle with a hard drive
  • Take precautions when moving a hard drive or changing CMOS setup

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

resolving common hard drive problems
Resolving Common Hard Drive Problems
  • Categories of problems
    • Caused by hardware or software?
    • Prevent hard drive from booting or prevent data from being accessed?
  • Gather basic information from user; diagnose and address the problems
  • Focus on the main priority
  • Use available resources (documentation, manufacturer’s Web site, technical support)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

troubleshooting hard drives with third party software
Troubleshooting Hard Drives with Third-Party Software
  • Norton Utilities
  • SpinRite
  • PartitionMagic

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hardware problems
Hardware Problems
  • Hard drive not found
  • Invalid drive or drive specification
  • Damaged boot record
  • Damaged FAT or root directory or bad sectors
  • Cannot boot from the hard drive
  • Drive retrieves and saves data slowly

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

software problems with hard drives
Software Problems with Hard Drives
  • Corrupted OS files
  • Corrupted partition table, boot record, or root directory, making all data on the hard drive inaccessible
  • Corrupted area of the FAT that points to the data, data’s directory table, or sector markings where data is located
  • Corrupted data

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

resolving hard drive and data access problems
Resolving Hard Drive and Data Access Problems
  • Partition table
  • Boot record
  • FAT and root directory
  • System files
  • Data and program files

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

data and program file corruption
Data and Program File Corruption
  • Options for restoring a data file that is not backed up
    • OS system tools and commands
    • Third-party software
    • Professional data recovery service

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

data and program file corruption continued
Data and Program File Corruption (continued)
  • Recovering data when portions of a damaged file are still intact
    • Create a new file on another disk
    • Use Copy command
    • Edit new file to replace missing data

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

data and program file corruption continued1
Data and Program File Corruption (continued)
  • Potential problems with files and file system
    • Corrupted file header
    • Lost clusters
    • Erased file

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

getting technical support
Getting Technical Support
  • Before you call, have available:
    • Drive model and description
    • Manufacturer and model of computer
    • Exact wording of error message
    • Description of the problem
    • Hardware and software configuration for the system

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

summary
Summary
  • How to optimize hard drive performance through disk compression and caching of hard drives
  • Types of viruses that can infect your hard drive; how to remove and prevent them
  • What to do when a hard drive fails or produces errors
  • The importance of keeping reliable backups of the file system and data

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition