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The political and civic engagement of migrants in Southern Europe: comparing the results in Barcelona, Lyon, Madrid and Milan. Laura Morales (Universidad de Manchester y Universidad de Murcia). Con la colaboración y financiación de:. WHY COMPARE THESE FOUR CITIES?.

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The political and civic engagement of migrants in Southern Europe: comparing the results in Barcelona, Lyon, Madrid and Milan

Laura Morales

(Universidad de Manchester y Universidad de Murcia)

Con la colaboración y financiación de:

why compare these four cities
WHY COMPARE THESE FOUR CITIES?
  • Migration processes and timing similar in Italy and Spain, though immigration flows and stocks much larger and sudden in Barcelona & Madrid than in Milan.
  • Though Maghrebi population and migration to France is much larger and for longer time, historical connections to Morocco are somewhat similar and Moroccan settlement is among the first in migration flows. Similar attitudes of ‘Moorophobia’ and problematic discrimination patterns.
  • Cases compared:
    • Ecuadoreans in Barcelona, Madrid and Milan.
    • Moroccans in Barcelona, Lyon and Madrid.
  • Interesting contrasts:
    • Ecuadoreans are of relatively recent migration both in Italy and Spain, whereas Moroccans are of more longstanding migration both in France and Spain.
    • Ecuadoreans are of similar religious/cultural background both in Italy and Spain (more in Spain due to language), Moroccans are of different religious/cultural background both in France and Spain (but closest to French due to language).
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Preliminary analyses of joint datasets of LOCALMULTIDEM project, only available a few weeks ago.
  • Aspects of civic and political integration studied:
    • Interest in politics
    • Confidence in national and city legislative and executive branches of government.
    • Vote intention
    • Political action
    • Associational involvement
interest in politics
Interest in politics
  • Large differences between autochthonous group: much higher in Milan, more similar and lower in Spanish cities.
  • Moroccan group: significant differences between Madrid and BCN/LYO, but only Moroccans in Madrid are less interested in local politics than autochthonous. In BCN & LYO the same or more.
  • Ecuadorian group: significant differences between Ecuadorians in Milan and Spanish cities; no significant differences between Ecuadorians and autochthonous in BCN; but a significant difference between autochthonous and Ecuadorians in Madrid, that is huge in Milan.
political confidence
Political confidence
  • No differences between autochthonous groups across cities.
  • Both migrant groups significantly more trusting than autochthonous in both Spanish cities, but this is not the case for LYO/MIL.
  • Moroccan group: significant differences between BCN and MAD/LYO, but Moroccans in Lyon are as trusting of political institutions as autochthonous. In BCN & MAD substantially more.
  • Ecuadorian group: significant differences between Ecuadorians in Milan and Spanish cities; significantly more trusting than autochthonous in Spanish cities, but significantly less trusting than autochthonous in Milan.
vote intention
Vote intention
  • Small differences between autochthonous group across 4 cities: a bit higher in Milan.
  • Moroccan group: no significant differences across cities, nor with regard to their respective autochthonous groups in any city.
  • Ecuadorian group: significant differences between Ecuadorians in Madrid and Milan; no significant differences between Ecuadorians and autochthonous in Spanish cities; but huge difference between autochthonous and Ecuadorians in Milan.
political action
Political action
  • Large differences between autochthonous group across 4 cities: much higher in Lyon & Milan.
  • No differences between autochthonous and migrants in Barcelona & Lyon, but significant and often large in Madrid & Milan.
  • Moroccan group: hugely excluded from political action in Madrid, whereas quite similar to autochthonous in BCN & LYO.
  • Ecuadorian group: significant differences between Ecuadorians in Madrid and Milan; no significant differences between Ecuadorians and autochthonous in BCN, but significant in MAD and huge difference between autochthonous and Ecuadorians in Milan.
associational involvement
Associational involvement
  • Limited differences between autochthonous group across 4 cities: only clearly lower in Madrid.
  • Generally large differences between autochthonous and migrant groups.
  • Moroccan group: sizeable differences in all cities with autochthonous, massive in Madrid, and not significant in LYO due to large variation.
  • Ecuadorian group: significant differences between Ecuadorians in Barcelona and Milan; no significant differences between Ecuadorians and autochthonous in MAD, huge difference between autochthonous and Ecuadorians in Milan.
summary of results
Summary of results
  • Differences across cities within the same group are usually smaller than differences across groups within same city.
  • In particular, autochthonous groups relatively similar for political confidence, vote intention and associational involvement (except MAD).
  • Moroccan group relatively homogenous across cities for attitudinal variables, but huge gap for Moroccans in MAD for behavioural integration (political action & associational involvement).
  • Moroccan-autochthonous comparisons: in Lyon hardly distinguishable, quite similar in Barcelona, but sharp contrasts in Madrid, where they are almost excluded in behavioural political integration and with a substantial gap in political interest.
  • Ecuadorians very similar in both Spanish cities, but sharp contrast with co-ethnics in Milan, who are systematically lagging behind in all indicators of civic and political integration.
  • Ecuadorian-autochthonous comparisons: no systematic gap for Spanish cities (sometimes gap in Barcelona, sometimes in Madrid), but huge exclusion of Ecuadorians in Milan as compared to the autochthonous population for ALL indicators of civic and political integration.
  • Hence, 2 groups in clear risk of political exclusion: Moroccans in Madrid & Ecuadorians in Milan.