ap world history pod 13 mings qings mughals n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
AP World History POD #13 – Mings, Qings, & Mughals PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
AP World History POD #13 – Mings, Qings, & Mughals

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

AP World History POD #13 – Mings, Qings, & Mughals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

AP World History POD #13 – Mings, Qings, & Mughals. Ming Dynasty. Class Discussion Notes. Bulliet et. al. – “The Early Ming Empire, 1368-1500”, pp. 355-359 “The Later Ming and Early Qing Empires”, pp. 561-569. A Historical Interpretation ….

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AP World History POD #13 – Mings, Qings, & Mughals' - yaron

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
class discussion notes

Class Discussion Notes

Bulliet et. al. –

“The Early Ming Empire, 1368-1500”, pp. 355-359

“The Later Ming and Early Qing Empires”, pp. 561-569

a historical interpretation
A Historical Interpretation …
  • “Historians of China, like historians of Russia and Iran, divide over the overall impact of the Mongol era. Since the Ming Empire reestablished many practices that are seen as purely Chinese, it receives praise from people who ascribe central importance to Chinese traditions. On the other hand, historians who look upon the Mongol era as a pivotal historical moment when communication across the vast interior of Eurasia served to bring east and west together sometimes see the inward-looking Ming as less productive than the Yuan.” (Bulliet, p. 355)
early ming empire
Early Ming Empire
  • Zhu Yuanzhang, a former monk, soldier, and bandit who watched family members and parents die from famine and disease
  • He blamed Mongol misrule for this and during the Yuan Empire’s last chaotic decades vanquished rival rebels and assumed imperial power under the name Hongwu
emperor hongwu
Emperor Hongwu
  • Moved capital to Nanjing on the Yangtze River turning away from the Mongol capital of Beijing
  • As a young rebel he took a radical Buddhist position, however, as a leader he adopted the conservative Confucian ways that depicted the emperor as a champion of civilization and virtue
  • Cut relations with Central Asia and the Middle East
  • Imposed strict limits on imports and foreign visitors
  • Silver replaced paper money for tax payments and commerce
evaluating the reforms of hongwu
Evaluating the Reforms of Hongwu
  • The anti-Mongol ideology created unhealthy economic conditions and therefore were only temporary
  • Over time, the Ming government came to resemble that of their Yuan predecessors
  • Ming rulers retained Yuan provincial structure, relied on Muslim calendars and astronomical calculations, and continued the use of the Mongol calendar
emperor yongle
Emperor Yongle
  • Seized power through a coup d’etat
  • Returned the capital to Beijing
  • Enlarged and improved Kubilai’s Forbidden City (moats, orange-red outer walls, golden roofs, marble bridges)
  • Intended the Forbidden City to be a fortress, religious cite, bureaucratic center, and imperial residential park to overshadow Nanjing
  • Restored commercial links with the Middle East
  • Explored maritime trade routes as the Mongols sill controlled much of the caravan route
zheng he
Zheng He
  • Naval explorer who traveled between 1405 and 1433
  • A Muslim whose father and grandfather had made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Zheng He had a good knowledge of the Middle East; and his religion eased relations with the states of the Indian subcontinent, where he directed his first three voyages. Subsequent expeditions reached Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, sailed the southern coast of Arabia and the Horn of Africa (modern Somalia), and possibly as far south as the Strait of Madagascar.
  • Visited traditional Chinese merchant communities to gain their allegiance and collect taxes
  • In Sumatra he slaughtered all the men to set an example
  • Added 50 new tributary states to the Ming imperial lands, but trade did not increase dramatically
  • The expeditions stopped after the deaths of Yongle and Zheng He
ming technology innovation
Ming Technology & Innovation
  • Limited mining to preserve the value of coins as well as to tax the industry
  • Technologies for bronze and steel weapon making declined
  • After the death of Yongle, ship building declined
  • Few advances in printing, timekeeping and agricultural technology
  • Agricultural production remained level
  • New weaving techniques did appear
  • Examination system was restored to recruit government officials (renewed study of Confucian classics)
  • Rapid population growth – led to deforestation in the southern and central region
  • Introduction of the cannon
  • Ports were shut down to avoid contact with Japanese pirates and to stop the Chinese from migrating to SE Asia
  • A technology gap opened between China and Japan and Korea
ming achievement
Ming Achievement
  • Wealth and consumerism in the 1300s and 1400s led to advancements, the decorative arts, and painting
  • Some of the earliest known novels were produced
  • Porcelain production and design
a historical interpretation1
A Historical Interpretation …
  • “Like Japan, China after 1500 experienced civil and foreign wars, and important change in government and new trading and cultural relations with Europe and its neighbors. The internal and external forces at work in China were different and operated on a much larger scale, but they led in similar directions. By 1800 China had a greatly enhanced empire, an expanding economy, and growing doubts about the importance of European trade and Christianity.” (Bulliet – p. 561)
late ming empire 1500 1644
Late Ming Empire, 1500-1644
  • A period of political weakness, warfare, and rural woes
  • European ships began to seek out new contacts with China in the early 16th century
  • The growing integration of China into the world economy stimulated rapid growth in the silk, cotton and porcelain industries
  • Tens of thousands of tons of silver from Japan and Latin America flooded into China
  • The influx of silver led many Chinese to substitute payments in silver for land taxes, labor obligations, and other kinds of dues
  • This led to rapid and high rates of inflation.
  • The government attempted to print paper money and copper coinage, but silver was too entrenched
little ice age
Little Ice Age
  • Annual temperatures dropped, reaching a low point around 1645 and remained low until the early 1700s
  • This created agricultural distress and famine fueled large uprisings that speeded the end of the Ming Empire
  • The devastation caused by these uprisings and the spread of disease resulted in steep declines in local populations
ming collapse
Ming Collapse
  • Although many factors contributed to the collapse of the Ming Empire (i.e.- environmental, economic, administrative), the primary reason was internal rebellion and rising Manchu power.