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lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL WMZ6 v !_. 5|SZ6 ( : WFT]. EZTEF. AU0F ( M.Sc., B.Ed.) DNNlGX lX1FS zL ALP ALP V[DP CF.:S}, lAN0F TFP DFJL lHP SrK. WFT]. VtIFZ ;]WLDF S], !!$ TtJM XMWFIF K[4 H[DFGF S[8,FS WFT] TtJM K[4

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lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL WMZ6 v !_


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  1. lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL WMZ6 v !_ 5|SZ6 (:WFT] • EZTEF. AU0F ( M.Sc., B.Ed.) • DNNlGX lX1FS • zL ALP ALP V[DP CF.:S}, lAN0F • TFP DF\0JL lHPSrK

  2. WFT] • VtIFZ ;]WLDF\ S], !!$ TtJMXMWFIF K[4 H[DFGF S[8,FS WFT] TtJM K[4 • DG]QIG[ H]NFH]NF TtJM VG[ T[DGF ;\IMHGM 5'yJLGF 5[8F/ DF\YL D/[ K[4 • T[GL p5,aWL D]HA T[G[ +6 EFUDF\ J[\RJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P TtJMGF BHFGF TZLS[ 5'yJL H,FJZ6 JFTFJZ6 D'NFJZ6 • Z[TL4 DF8L4 VG[ 5yYZMYL AG[,]\ K[P • V[<I]lDlGID4 SM5Z4 VFI"G4 S[<;LID4 VG[ ;M0LID VMS;F.0 S[ ;<OF.0 :J~5[ CMI K[P • NlZIM4 GNL4 VG[ ;ZMJZGF 5F6L VG[ AZOYL AG[,]\ K[P • 5M8[lXID4D[uG[lXID4 S[<;LID4 VG[ ;M0LID ;\IMHG :J~5[ CMI K[P • H]NFH]NF JFI]VMG]\ AG[,]\ K[P • pDNF WFT]VM H[JL S[ ;MG]\4 RF\NL4 %,[8LGD D]ST :J~5[ CMI K[P

  3. D]bI WFT] VG[ T[GL SFRL BGLH

  4. D]bI WFT] VG[ T[GL SFRL BGLH

  5. WFT] XF:+ VYJF WFT]SD"“lJlW • WFT]XF:+G[ GLR[ D]HA 5F\R TAÞFDF\ JC[\RJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • 1. SFRL WFT]DF\YL 5Fp0Z • 2. SFRL WFT]G]\ ;\S[gN=LSZ6 • vOL6 %,JG s ;<OF.0GL VX]lwWVM N}Z SZJF f • vR]\ASLI V,ULSZ6 s VFIG"GL VX]lwWVM N}Z SZJFf • v;[lg8=OI]U[XG s C,SF S6MG[ N}Z SZJFf • 3. E}\HG4 S[l<XG[XG VG[ l5U,G • 4. lZ0SXG • 5. WFT]G]\ lJX]âLSZ6 v lJn]TlJEFHG • v5|JFCLSZ6

  6. OL6v%,JG 5âlT • OL6v%,JG 5âlTGM p5IMU :F<OF.0 BGLHM JF/L SFRLWFT]VM H[JLS[ SM5Z lh\S VG[ ,[0GF ;\S[gã6 DF8[ YFI K[P • VF 5âlTDF\ SFRL WFT]GM AFZLS 5Fp0Z 5F6L VG[ 85["g8F.GGF lDz6G[ V[S DM8F 5F+DF\ EZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • SFRL WFT]DF\GF ;<OF.0GF S6M 85["g8F.GYL EL\HF. G[ RM\[8L HFI K[4 HIFZ[ DF8L VG[ Z[TLGF S6M 85["g8F.GYL EL\HFTF GYLP

  7. VF 5|JFCL lDz6G[ V[S G/L DFZOT[ NAF6YL CJF 5;FZ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VFYL :F<OF.0GF S6MGL VFH]AFH] OL6 pt5gG Y. lDz6GL ;5F8L 5Z VFJ[ K[P • DF8L4Z[TL JU[Z[ EFZ[ S6M 5F6YL EL\HF.G[ lDz6GF T/LI[ A[;L HFI K[P • ;<OF.0 BGLHM JF/F OL6G[ ALHF5F+DF\ ,. 5F6L J0[ WMJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • VF 5âlTYL SM5Z 5F.ZF.8; H[JL SFRL WFT]G\] ;\S[gã6 YFI K[ VG[ BGLHDF\YL DF8L Z[TL JU[Z[ N}Z YFI K[P

  8. R]\ASLI V,ULSZ6 • SFRL WFT]DF\ VFIG"GL VX]lâ CMITM WFT]GF AFZLS 5FJ0ZG[ UM/ UlT SZTF 5ÎF 5Z 50JF N[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ V[S K[0[ R]\AS CMJFYL SFRL WFT]DF\GF VFIG"GF S6M R]\AS J0[ VFSQFF".G[ GHLS 50[ K[P • HIFZ[ AFSLGF S6M N}Z 50[ K[P • VFD VF 5âlT ãFZF VFIG"GL VX]lâVM N}Z SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • VFD4 VFIG"GL BGLHG]\ ;\S[gã6 R]\ASLI 5âlT ãFZF YFI K[P

  9. E]\HG • VF 5âlT J0[ SFRL WFT]GF\ ;<OF.0 ;\IMHG G[ CJFGL CFHZLDF\ UZD SZJFYL ;<OZ N}Z SZL T[G[ VMS;F.0DF\ O[ZJ[ K[P • VF 5âlTDF\ AFQ5XL, ;<OZGL VX]lâVM N}Z YFI K[P • 2ZnS(s) +3O2(g) 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g) • 2HgS(s) +3O2(g) 2HgO(s) + 2SO2(g)

  10. S[l<;G[XG • H[ WFT]VM SFAM"G[8 :J~5DF\ CMI T[G[ CJFGL U[ZCFHZLDF\ ,FAM ;DI UZD SZJFYL T[DF\YL AFQ5XL, VX]lâ VM N}Z Y. VG]JTL" VMS;F>0 D/[ K[P • MgCO3(s)MgO(s) + CO2(g) • ZnCO3(s)ZnO(s) + CO2(g)

  11. lJn]T lJEFHG 5âlT • lh\S4 ,[04 V[<I]lDlGID4 SM5Z4 l:F<JZ VG[ UM<0 H[JL WFT]VMGF lJX]âLSZ6 DF8[ VF 5âlTGM p5IMU YFI K[P • VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ VX]â WFT]GM ;l/IM WG W|]JsV[GM0fVG[ X]â WFT]GM ;l/IM k6W|]JsS[YM0f TZLS[ ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • WFT]GF 1FFZGF H,LI ãFJ6GM p5IMU lJn]T lJEFHI TZLS[ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • lJn]TlJEFHIDF\ lJW]T 5|JFC 5;FZ SZTF V[GM0 lJn]T lJEFHIDF\ VMU/[ K[P V[GM0 VMU/JFYL V[8,F 5|DF6DF\ WFT] lJn]TlJEFHI DF\ pD[ZFI K[P • T[8,F 5|DF6DF\ WFT] lJn]T lJEFHIDF\YL S[YM0 5Z HDF YFI K[P

  12. S[YM0 5Z HDF YTL WFT]DF\ VX]lâ G CMJFYL T[ VlTX]â CMI K[P • V[GM0 VMU/JFYL lJn]T lJEFHIDF\ pD[ZFI[, VX]lâ 5{SL ãFjI VX]lâVM V[GM0GF Tl/I[ V[S9L YFI K[ T[G[ V[GMl0S 5\S SC[ K[P • SM5Z WFT]GF lJn]T lJEFHG GL 5âlTDF\ VX]â SM5ZGF[ ;/LIM V[GM0 TZLS[ VG[ X]â SM5ZGM ;/LIM S[YM0 TZLS[ UM9JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • SM5Z ;<O[8G]\ ãFJ6 lJn]TlJEFHI TZLS[ ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[DF\ YM0F 5|DF6DF\ D\N ;<OI]lZS V[l;0 pD[ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  13. lJn]TlJEFHIDF\ lJW]T 5|JFC 5;FZ SZJFYL V[GM0DF\YL H[8,F 5|DF6DF\ SM5Z4 SM5Z ;<O[8GF H,LI ãFJ6DF\ VMU/[ K[P • T[8,F 5|DF6DF\ SM5Z SM5Z ;<O[8GF H,LI ãFJ6DF\YL S[YM0 5Z HDF YFI K[P • VF ZLT[ HDF YT\] SM5Z ,UEU 100% X]âTF WZFJ[ K[P V[GM0 oCu(s) Cu+2(aq) + 2e- S[YM0oCu+2(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) S],5|lS|IFCu(s) VX]âCu(s) X]â

  14. 5|JFCLSZ6 5âlT • VF 5âlTDF\ l8G VG[ ,[0 H[JL ;C[,F.YL 5LU/TL WFT]VMGF E]SFG[ EõLGF -M/FJ 5Z WLD[ WLD[ 50JF N[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • EõLGF -M/FJJF/M EFU VUFpYL UZD SZJFDF\ VFJ[,M CMJFYL GLRF U,GlAN]\G[ SFZ6[ WFT] 5LU/LG[ 5|JFCL~5 Y. -F/ p5Z h05YL ;ZSLG[ GLR[GF 5F+DF\ E[UL YFI K[P • HIFZ[ T[DF\GL VX]lâVM VF TF5DFG[ 5LU/TL G CMJFYL -M/FJGF p5ZGF EFU 5Z H ZCL HFI K[P

  15. AMS;F>8 DF\YL X]â V[<I]lDGF D[/JJFGL A[IZ5âlT • AMS;F>8 DF\YL X]â V[<I]lDGFA[IZ5âlT äFZF D/[P • AMS;F>8G]\ lG:YF5G SZTF\ T[DGF O[Z; VMS;F>0G\] O[lZS VMS;F>0 DF\ lZ0SXG YFI P • lG:YFl5T AMS;F>8G[ X]â SZL 5FJ0Z AGFJJFDF\ VFJ[P • AMS;F>8DF\ ;F\ã SM:8LS ;M0FG]\ ãFJ6 pD[ZL433 KTF5DFG[ VG[ 5YL6JFTFJZ6 NAF6[ A\W5F+DF\ 6YL8S,FS ;]WL UZD SZTF\ ãFjI ;Ml0ID V[<I]lDG[8 AG[P • Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaAlO2(aq) + H2O(l)

  16. ;Ml0ID V[<I]lDG[8 JW] 5F6L pD[ZL C,FJTF H/lJEFHG Y> ;O[N RLS6F\ V[<I]lDlGID CF>0=MS;F>0GF VJ1F[5 D/[ K[P • NaAlO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) Al(OH)3(s) +NaOH(aq) • V[<I]lDlGID CF>0=MS;F>0GF\ VJ1F[5G[ UF/L4 ;]SJLG[ 1473 KTF5DFG[ UZD SZTF\ X]â V[<I]lDGF D/[ K[P • 2Al(OH)3(s) Al2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) • A[IZ 5âlT ãFZF X]â99.5%V[<I]lDGF D/[ K[P

  17. V[<I]lDGF DF\YL X]wW V[<I]lDlGID D[/JJFGL CM, C[ZFp<8 5âlT • .P;P !((&DF\ CM, VG[ C[ZFp<8 GFDGF A[ J{7FlGSMV[ VF 5âlT XMWL CMJFYL T[G[ CM, C[ZFp<8 5âlT SC[ K[P • VF 5âlTDF\ V[<I]lDGFG]\ U,GlA\N] GLR]\ ,FJJF l5UF/[, S|FIM,F.8DF\sNa3AlF6f VMUF/JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • VF lDz6 l5UF/[, V[<I]lDGF SZTF\ ;FZF lJn]TJFCS TZLS[ JT[" K[P • VF lDz6DF\ O[<;5FZ sCaF2fpD[ZL U,GlA\N] JW] GLR\] ,FJL XSFI K[P

  18. CM, C[ZFp<8 5âlTDF\ SFA"GGF :TZJF/F ,MB\0GF V[S 5F+DF\ 5LU/[, V[<I]DLGF VG[ S|FIM,F.8 GF l5UF/[,F ãFJ6G]\ lJn]T lJEFHG SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • SMQFDF\ V[GM0 TZLS[[ SM5ZGF S,[d5 ;FY[ HM0[, SFA"GGF ;/LIF4 HIFZ[ S[YM0 TZLS[ SFA"G:TZ I]ST U|[OF.8 G[ ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • lJn]TlJEFHG YTF V[<I]lDlGID V,U 50[ VG[ SMQFGF Tl/I[ l5Ul,T ~5DF\ V[S+ YFI K[4 HIF\YL T[G[ ACFZ SF-L ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • V[<I]lDGF VG[ S|FIM,F>8 GL 5|lS|IFYL AGTF 5|JFCL WGFIG S[YM0 5Z 5LU/[, WFT] TZLS[ lZ0SXG 5FD[ K[P • HIFZ[O-2G]\ V[GM0 p5Z SFA"GGL CFHZL DF\CO2TZLS[ VMlS;0[XG 5FD[ K[P 5lZ6FD[ SFA"GGF ;l/IFsV[GM0f BJF> HFI K[P T[YL JFZ\JFZ AN,JF 50[ K[P • C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)

  19. VFI"G lGQSQF"6 • VFI"G D]bItJ[ JFTEõL £FZF lCD[8F>8GF lZ0SXGYL D[/JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • JFTEõL p5ZGF K[0[YL ;F\S0L4 JrR[ GF EFUDF\ 5CM/L VG[ Tl/IFGF EFU YL ;F\S0L CMI K[P • JFTEõL V\NZGL lNJF,MVluGZMWS >\8MGL AG[,L CMI K[P • JFTEõLDF\ GLR[GF EFUDF\YL UZD CJF O}\SJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  20. lCD[8F.8DF\ ZC[,L DM8FEFUGL VX]lâ N}Z SIF" AFN ;F\ã SFRL WFT]G[ SMS VG[ R}GFGF 5yYZ ;FY[ VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ JFTEõLDF\ ZC[,F é\RF TF5DFGG[ SFZ6[ S[8,LS 5|lS|IFVM YFI K[ VG[ V\T[ 5LU/[,]\ ,MB\0 D/[ K[P • SMS4 VMlS;HG ;FY[ ;\IMHF> SFA"G 0FIMS;F.0 AGFJ[ K[P VF 5|lS|IF pQDF1F[5S CMJFYL EõLG]\ TF5DFG 1773 K YL 1973 K H[8,]\ YFI K[P • (i) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) +pQDF

  21. JFTEõLDF\ é\RF TF5DFGGF SFZ6[ R}GFGF 5yYZG]\ lJW8G Y. S[l<XID VMS;F.0 VG[ SFA"G 0FIMS;F.0 AG[P • (ii) CaCO3(s)CaO(s) + CO2(g) • UZD SFA"G 0FIMS;F.0 JFI] EõLDF\ p5Z HFI tIFZ[ SMS ;FY[ OZYL 5|lS|IF SZL SFA"G DMGMS;F.0 AGFJ[ K[P VF 5|lS|IF pQDFXMQFS CMJFYL EõLG]\ TF5DFG1173 KH[8,]\ YFI K[P • (iii) CO2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g) • EõLG]\ TF5DFG 673KYL 973KCMI tIFZ[ SFA"G DMGMS;F.0 £FZF lCD[8F.8DF\ ZC[,F VFI"G VMS;F.0 G]\ 5|JFCL ,MB\0DF\ lZ0SXG YFI K[P 5LU/[,L WFT] EõLGFTl/I[ V[S9L YFI K[P • (iv) 3Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) 2Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g) • Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) 3FeO(s) + CO2(g) • FeO(s) + CO(g) 2Fe(l) + CO2(g)

  22. 5|lS|IF(ii) NZlDIFG S[l<XIDVMS;F.04lCD[8F.8DF\ VXlâ TZLS[ Z[TL(SiO2 );FY[ 5|lS|IF SZL S[l<XID l;l,S[8 AGFJ[ K[ T[G[ :,[U SC[ K[P • CaO(s) + SiO2 CaSiO3(i) • VF :,[U 5LU/[,F ,MB\0 SZTF JHG DF\ C,SM CMJFYL T[ 5LU/[,F ,MB\0 TZTM ZC[ K[P T[YL 5LU/[,F ,MB\0G]\ VMlS;0[XG YT] V8SFJ[ K[P • 5LU/[,F ,MB\0 VG[ :,[UG[ EõLGFTl/I[ ZC[,F V,U V,U DFU" £FZF ACFZ SF-L ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • 5LU/[,F ,MB\0G[ 3G :J~5DF\ O[ZJL ,MB\0GL 5F8 AGFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  23. WFT]GL ;lS|ITF z[6L • NZ[S WFT]GL ;lS|ITF ;ZBL CMTL GYL4 S[8,LS JW] ;lSI TM S[8,LS VMKL ;lS|I CMI K[P • H[ WFT] ;C[,FI YL .,[S8=MG U]DFJL WG JLHEFZ WFZ6 SZ[ T[ JW] ;lS|I CMI K[P • VFYL S[8,LS WFT]VMG[ T[GL ;lS|ITF D]HA pTZTF S|DDF\ UM9JTF D/TL z[6LG[ WFT]GL ;lS|ITFz[6L SC[ K[P T[G[ GLR[ 5|DF6[ UM9JL XSFIP • K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe >Pb > (H) > Cu >Hg > Ag > Au

  24. WFT]GF EÁlTS U]6WDM" • WFT]TtJMGL ;5F8L ;FDFgI ZLT[ R/SF8JF/L VG[ 5Ml,X SZL XSFI T[JL CMI K[P • WFT]TtJM ;FDFgI ZLT[ 3G :J~5[ VG[ EFZ[ CMI K[4 T[D KTF\ Na, K, Mg, Al JU[Z[ 5|DF6DF\ C,SL WFT] K[P 5FZM VG[ U[l,ID V5JFN TZLS[ 5|JFCL WFT]VM K[P • DM8F EFUGL WFT]VM S96 CMI K[4 H[ R%5] J0[ SF5L XSFTL GYL4 H[JL S[ Fe Cu, Al JU[Z[4 HIFZ[ Na, K, VG[ PbH[JL S[8,LS WFT]VM R%5] J0[ SF5L XSFI T[JL GZD CMI K[P

  25. WFT]GF EÁlTS U]6WDM" • WFT]VM pQDF VG[ lJn]TGL ;]JFCS K[P Ag, Cu, AlH[JL WFT]GL lJn]TJFCSTF 36L JWFZ[ CMI K[P ,[0 VG[ DZSI]ZL H[JL WFT]VM pQDFGL D\NJFCS K[P • 36L WFT]VMG[ 5TZF AGFJL XSFI K[4 ;MGF VG[ RF\NLGF JZB B}A H 5FT/L 5ÎLGF CMI K[P WFT]VMG[ B[\RLG[ 5FT/F TFZ AGFJL XSFIP VFD4 WFT]VMG[ 8L5L XSFI K[P TYF B[\RL XSFI K[P

  26. WFT]GF EÁlTS U]6WDM" • WFT]GF U,G VG[ pS,GlA\N] µ\RF\ CMI K[P NFPTPVFIG"G]\ U,GlA\N] 36]\ µ\R]\ s1812KfH[8,]\ K[P • WFT]VMG[ VOF/jFFYL Z6SFZ pt5gG YFI K[P • V[S WFT]DF\YL ALHL WFT] pD[ZLG[ H]NF H]NF U]6WDM"JF/L lDzWFT]VM AGFJL XSFI K[P H[DS[ l5T/4 HD"G l;<JZ4 ;MGFGF\ VFE}QF6M JU[Z[

  27. WFT]GF ZF;FIl6S U]6WDM" • 0FIVMlS;HG ;FY[ 5|lS|IF o • 0FIVMlS;HG ;FY[ 5|lS|IFYL WFT]GM VMS;F>0 AG[ K[P • Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) • 5F6L ;FY[ 5|lS|IF o • 5F6L ;FY[ 5|lS|IFYL WFT]GF VMS;F>0 S[ CF>0=MS;F>0 AGFJ[ VG[ CF>0=MHG JFI] pt5gG SZ[P • 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) • 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) • Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) • V[l;0 ;FY[ 5|lS|IF o • V[l;0 ;FY[ 5|lS|IFYL 1FFZ VG[ CF>0=MHG JFI] pt5gG YFI K[P • Mg (s) + HCl(aq) 2MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) • 2Al(s)+ 6HCl(aq)2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)

  28. 0FIS,MlZG ;FY[ 5|lS|IF o • 0FIS,MlZG ;FY[ 5|lS|IFYL WFT]GM S,MZF>0 AGFJ[ K[P • Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s) • Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s) • 0FICF>0=MHG ;FY[ 5|lS|IF o • 0FICF>0=MHG ;FY[ 5|lS|IFYL CF>0=F>0 AGFJ[ K[P • 2Na(s) + H2(g) 2NaH(s) • 2K(s) + H2(g) 2KH(s) • Ca(s) + H2(g) CaH2(s)

  29. WFT]1FFZ6 • 1FFZ6 V[ D]bItJ[ VFI"G VMS;F.0 (Fe2O3.XH2o)K[4 H[ ,F, Z\UGF SF8 TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P • CJF4 5F6L VYJF E[HGF ;\5S"DF\ WFT]GL B]<,L ;5F8L 5Z SF8 ,FUJFGL 38GFG[ WFT]1FFZ6 SC[ K[P

  30. 1FFZ6 V8SFJJFGF p5FI • ,MB\0G]\ 1FFZ6 V8SFJJF DF8[ T[GL 5Z Z\U ,UF0JM HM.V[ HM Z\U GLS/L HFI TM ;DIF\TZ[ Z\UsS,Zf ,UF0JM HM.V[P • ,MB\0GL RLHJ:T]VM sCYM0L4 5Þ04 DF/LGL SFTZf p5Z T[, ,UF0JF YL 1FFZ6 V8SFJL XSFI K[4 SFZ6 S[ T[,G]\ :TZ,MB\0GL RLHJ:T]G[ CJF S[ E[HGF ;\5S"DF\ VFJJF N[T]\ GYLP • WFT] 5Z >G[D, S,ZG]\ VFJZ6 ,UF0LG[ 1FFZ6 V8SFJL XSFI K[P

  31. :8LDZGL ,MB\0GL %,[8MG[ SF8 BFTL V8SFJJF DF8[ ,MB\0 SZTF\ JW] lS|IFxFL, WFT] H[JL S[ D[uG[lXID VYJF lh\SGF\ DM8F RM;,F\ ,MB\0GL %,[8MG[ HM0L NlZIFGF 5F6LGF ;\5S"DF\ ZFBJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VF RM;,FG]\ NlZIFGF 5F6LDF\ ;TT 1FFZ6 YT]\ ZC[ K[ VG[ T[DG[ ;DIF\TZ[ AN,JF 50[ K[P T[YL %,[8MG[ SF8 ,FUTM GYLP • IMuI ZF;FIl6S 5NFYM" slGZMWSMf p5IMU SZJFYL • ,MB\0G]\ 1FFZ6 V8SFJJFGF V;ZSFZS p5FI TZLS[ T[DF\ VgI WFT] S[ VWFT] pD[ZL T[GF U}6WDM"DF\ O[ZOFZ SZLG[ 1FFZ6YL ARFJL XSFI K[P • H[D S[ 70% ,MB\04 20% S|MlDID VG[ 10% lGS, DF\YL AGTL :8[G,[; :8L, lDzWFT] 5Z CJF4 5F6L S[ VF<S,LGL V;Z YTL GYLP T[YL SF8 ,FUTM GYLP

  32. lDzWFT] T[GF W8SM4 U]6WDM“ VG[ p5IMU

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