Different kinds of maps
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Different kinds of maps. Physical maps- show what the land itself looks like, identifying physical features Distribution maps- show where something can be found Political maps-show us how an area is divided into countries, states, provinces or other units

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Different kinds of maps
Different kinds of maps

  • Physical maps- show what the land itself looks like, identifying physical features

  • Distribution maps- show where something can be found

  • Political maps-show us how an area is divided into countries, states, provinces or other units

  • Movement maps-show us how to get around. Such as road maps.

Topographical/Physical Map

Of Finland


Contour Map

Distribution Map of

Rhino’s in Africa


  • A magnetic needle mounted on what is known as a compass rose

  • Because of the earth’s magnetic fields, the compass always points North

  • Aiding explorers in navigation

  • Considered the greatest invention in the world of exploration

Climate zones
Climate Zones

  • Low Latitudes - Tropical Wet and Tropical Wet and Dry.

  • Middle Latitudes - Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Humid Continental, Marine West Coast.

  • High Latitudes - Subarctic, Tundra, Icecap

  • Varies - Semiarid, Arid, Highland

The greenhouse effect
The Greenhouse Effect

  • Part of the sun’s radiation passes through Earth’s atmosphere. Like the glass in a greenhouse, the atmosphere keeps the heat from escaping back into space too quickly.

  • Humans have altered Earth’s atmosphere by burning fuels that release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. They also have cut down the forests that absorb carbon dioxide.

  • Many scientists claim that in recent decades rising carbon dioxide levels have coincided with a rise in global temperatures. This trend known as global warming is believed to be caused in part by human activities, such as the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. As more fossil fuels are burned, greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere and trap more heat.

Hoover dam
Hoover Dam

  • The dam is an important source of fresh water and electrical power in the Southwest. The Hoover Dam on the river provides electricity for Las Vegas and other cities.

Religions of the world
Religions of the World

  • Christian

  • Islam

  • Hindu

  • Buddhism

  • Judaism


  • NAFTA stands for the North American Free Trade Agreement. Canada, the United States, and Mexico are members of NAFTA.

  • NAFTA abolishes most tariffs on imported goods between these countries increasing trade.

Economic systems
Economic Systems

A. Traditional Economy

Customs and traditions determine the rules for economic activity in traditional economies, but few areas in the world have such economies today. What are some examples?

B. Market Economy (Free Enterprise)

In a market economy, individuals and private groups decide what they will produce and what they will purchase. A mixed-market economy is one in which the government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions that affect the marketplace.

C. Command Economy

In a command economy, the government owns the means of producing and distributing goods and controls all economic decision making.

  • Communism: Strict governmental control of the economy and all other aspects of society is known as communism.

  • Socialism : a government some control of enterprise alongside government-run activities to equally distribute wealth and promote economic opportunity among all people, to place the control of major decisions about production in the government, and to advance public ownership of most land, factories, and other means of production.

Economic activity
Economic Activity

  • Most of the countries in Latin America rely heavily on primary economic activity such as agriculture, mining (for minerals and oil), fishing, harvesting timber, and livestock ranching.

Population growth
Population Growth

The population of Earth is now about 6.9 billion and is expected to reach 7 billion by 2014. People inhabit about 30 percent of the planet’s land.

A. Growth Rates

World population is growing rapidly because birthrates have not declined as fast as death rates. Improved diet and health care have lowered the death rate in many places. In economically developing countries, the birthrate is often very high. Wealthy industrialized countries, however, tend to have a low birthrate.

B. Challenges of Population Growth

World food production has risen to meet demands on every continent except Africa. However, rapidly growing populations still face shortages of freshwater, housing, and clothing. What are some countries?

C. Negative Population Growth

In some countries the death rate is higher than the birthrate. Countries with negative growth rates often recruit workers What are some countries?

Population distribution
Population Distribution

A. Population Density

  • The earth’s people are not evenly distributed over the available land.

  • Most people live near sources of freshwater and in areas where the climate is temperate.

  • Population density measures the average number of people living on a square mile or square kilometer of land.

    B. Population Movement

  • More and more people throughout the world are moving to urban areas

  • in search of better jobs, education, and health care.

  • About half the world’s people now live in urban areas.

  • People also migrate from one country to another, seeking greater economic opportunities and political freedom.

Division into 50 states
Division into 50 States

  • America divided power to be shared or given to all the 50 states in the US Constitution.

Canadian shield
Canadian Shield

  • The Canadian Shield is a rocky, mainly flat area around Hudson Bay.

Developed or developing
Developed or Developing?

  • The United States and Canada have the following demographics:

Mississippi river1
Mississippi River

  • The Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States with a length of 2,340 miles. The river is an important transportation route from the grain producing states of middle America to the Gulf of Mexico.


  • Most of Latin America has a mixed population called mestizo.

  • Mestizos are people of mixed Spanish and Native ancestry.

  • People in the Caribbean have mixed European, Native, and African ancestry.

The andes
The Andes

  • The Andes Mountains extend from Columbia to the southern tip of Chile and they are over 4,000 miles long. At some points the Andes are over 300 miles wide and large portions of Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Bolivia have very high elevations.

Sierra madres
Sierra Madres

  • The Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidentals run along the east and west coast of Mexico. Between these two mountain ranges lie the Mexican Plateau.

The amazon river
The Amazon River

  • Much of the Amazon River is navigable, which means large boats can travel up it to transport goods to the cities located along its banks.

The panama canal
The Panama Canal

  • The Panama Canal is an important waterway that cuts through the isthmus of Panama. The canal is human made and was completed in 1914. The canal eliminated the long trip around Cape Horn, the southernmost tip of South America.

European colonization
European Colonization

  • Latin America was colonized by European countries.

  • Spain colonized Mexico and most of Central America and South America.

  • Portugal colonized Brazil.

  • The English colonized Jamaica and Belize.

  • The French colonized Haiti.

European colonization1
European Colonization

  • The Europeans converted the natives to Roman Catholicism and made them learn their languages.

  • The most wide spoken languages are Spanish and Portuguese.

  • The Europeans brought Africans to work on sugar plantations as slaves.

Slash and burn farming
Slash and Burn Farming

  • Slash and burn farming is a common method of farming in tropical areas with large rainforests. Farmers cut down trees and burn them in order to fertilize the soil. After a few years this process must be repeated and it leads to deforestation.

Economic unions
Economic Unions

  • The European Union is the dominant economic union in Europe. The European Union has introduced a single currency called the euro in order to promote and facilitate trade.


  • Europe has five major peninsulas:

  • Scandinavian Peninsula

  • Jutland

  • Iberian Peninsula

  • Italian Peninsula

  • Balkan Peninsula

Scandinavian peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula

  • The Scandinavian Peninsula is in Northern Europe. Norway, Sweden, and part of Finland are on the Scandinavian Peninsula. The peninsula is surrounded by the Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea, and North Sea.


  • The country of Denmark is on Jutland.

Iberian peninsula
Iberian Peninsula

  • The countries of Portugal and Spain are on the Iberian Peninsula.

The italian peninsula
The Italian Peninsula

  • Italy is on the Italian Peninsula.

The balkan peninsula
The Balkan Peninsula

  • The Balkan Peninsula is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea.

Climate and vegetation
Climate and Vegetation

  • Europe is in the middle and high latitudes, therefore, Europe has many different types of climates.

  • In Northern Europe there is Tundra and Sub-arctic climates.

  • Most of Western Europe has a Marine West Coast climate zone.

  • Southern Europe has a Mediterranean climate.


  • Wind currents and ocean currents have a large impact on the climate of Europe.

    A. The North Atlantic Drift is an ocean current that warms Europe.

    B. Europe is also warmed by wind currents called the Westerlies.

Northern ireland
Northern Ireland

  • Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom. The population is split between Catholics and Protestants. The Catholics fought for political power and the Protestants fought to retain power and remain part of the United Kingdom.

Mountain regions
Mountain Regions

  • Mountainous areas like the Alps in Switzerland and Andorra rely on tourism, recreation, and mineral resources for their economy.

Cold war military alliances
Cold War Military Alliances