耶鲁专升本公共英语YY 课堂 ---------定语从句讲解
定语的位置： • 1.形容词作定语前置：形容词+名词 2.句子作定语后置：名词+句子（定语从句） • She is the girl. ╲ • The girllikes me. ╱ • She is the girl who likes me • 关系词 • 一、定义：在英语句子中，用于限定名词或代词的句子，叫做定语从句。 • 二、构成： 先行词+关系词+定语从句（一般情况下，三者紧挨着，顺序不可变） • 例：She is the girlwholikes me. • 先行词 关系词 定语从句 • 注：1.被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。 • 2.关系词指代先行词，两者为同一事物。
三、关系词 • 主 宾 • 关系代词：指人who/that whom/that whose • 指物which/that which /that whose • 关系副词：作状语，先行词为 时间when • 地点where • 原因why(reason) • ☆注：关系词的选择 • 当从句缺少成分（主、宾、表）时，用关系代词。 • 当从句不缺少成分时，用关系副词。 • 关系词做宾语成分时可以省略 • 判断缺不缺成分以“五大基本句型”为标准。 • 例：⑴Is this the factory B he worked last year? • ⑵I like the place C E FI visited three years ago. • ⑶He is the star D E Fwe love. • （4）I don’t know the reason ___G__ they broke up with each other. A. when B. where C. which D. whom E. that F. / G. why
四、如何找定语从句： 以______为坐标， 如果______前无谓语动词（包括be动词），从______到第 二个 谓语动词前为从句 如果______前有谓语动词，从______到句末为从句 • 例：⑴The girl B E my father is talking to is my girl friend. • ⑵The work A E has just been finished is very important. • ⑶I’ll never forget the day C we first met each other. • A E we spent together. • A. which B. whom C. when D. who E. that F. where • 注：若____前有名词，通常考定语从句。
The place ______interested me most was the Children’s Palace. which B. where C. what D. in which 2. That is the day ______I ‘ll never forget. which B. what C. when D. on which 3. No one don’t know the reason ______ she gets so angry. that B. which C. why D. when 4. This is the best novel ______ I have ever read. A. which B. where C. that D. what
五、whose的使用：1.从句不缺成分 • 2.先行词与从句主语构成从属关系 • 3.从句的主语前没有the • 例：⑴This is the scientist C achievements(成就) are well known. • A. who B. whom C. whose D. of whom • ⑵This is the house, D the window was broken last night. • A. which B. whose C. that D. of which • 注：whose + n. = of which/whom + the + n. = the + n. + of which/whom • 例：This is the house, the window of which was broken last night. • This is the house whose window was broken last night.
六、关系代词which与that的使用： a.只用that不用which的情况： • 1.当先行词是something, everything, anything, nothing, some, all, a little, little, a few, few, all等不定代词或被这些词修饰时，用that,不用which. • 2.当先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词或有the only, the very(正好,正是), the last, just修饰时，用that,不用which. • 3.当先行词既有人又有物时，用that, 不用which. • 例: ⑴Do you have anythingthat you want to say. • ⑵This is the best movie that I’ve ever seen. • ⑶Do you know the things and personsthat they are talking about? • ⑷Who is the boy that won the gold medal(金牌)? • (5) Which is the gold medal that the boy won?
b.只用which不用that的情况： • 1.当关系词前有介词时，用which, 不用that • 例：This is a house in which Lu Xun once lived. • 注：此时，介词+关系代词 相当于 关系副词，且介词要与先行词或从句动词构成搭配。 • E.g. when=in/at/on/during which • where=in/at/on/from which • 如上句：This is a house where /in live Lu Xun once lived. • This is the city where/from which comes. • 例：⑴This is the factory _____ he worked last year. • A. which B. in that C. in which D. of which • ⑵John is the boy ____ he talked yesterday. • A. whom B. with whom C. of which D. of who
2.在非限制性定语从句中，用which, 不用that • 定语从句的分类： • 限制性定语从句：This is the book that/which I want to read. • 非限制性定语从句： This is the book , which I want to read. • 注：1.限制性定语从句中无“，”连接 • 非限制性定语从句中有“，”连接 • 2.在限制性定语从句中，当关系词作宾语时，可以省略。 • 例：This is the book (that/which) I want to read. • This is the book , which I want to read. • 3.在非限定性定语从句中，只是不用that,其他关系词可以用：
例：⑴She has fallen in love with Jack,_____ I find hard to imagine. (2009) A. who B. that C. whom D. which ⑵Mr. Zhang, ____ came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of my father’s. A. which B. that C. who D. whom (2006)
七、当先行词为the way（方式，方法）时，且当从句不缺成分时， • 关系词有三种情况：that / in which / 不填 • 例1：⑴The way that/in which/不填 he explained the sentence to us was simple. • ⑵The way that/which he explained to us was simple. • 例2：I don’t like_____ you speak to her. (2013) • A. the way B. the way in that • C. the way which D. the way of which
八、关系代词as的用法 • 先行词由such , the same, so, as 修饰时，从句缺成分，关系代词用as • 例：We have found such materials as are used in their factory. • Your shirt is the same I bought yesterday. • 2.在非限定性定语从句中，as和which都可以代表前面一整句话的内容。 • as引导的从句可位于主句前，主句中，主句后。但which引导的从句只能位于主句后。
此外，as用于以下固定搭配： as we know(正如我们所知) as is often the case(像通常那样) as has been said before(如上所述) as is reported(正如报道的那样) as is well known(众所周知) as was expected(正如预料的那样) as is known to everybody(众所周知) 例：⑴As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health. ⑵Smoking, as we know, is harmful to one’s health. ⑶Smoking is harmful to one’s health, as /which we know. ⑷AS was expected, she married him. She married him, as/which was expected.
九、其他要点（一） • 1. one of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词复数 • the only one of +复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词单数 • 例：He is one of the boys who are handsome. (be) • 先行词 • He is the only one of the boys who is handsome. (be) • 先行词 • 2.数词/代词 + of which/whom表示先行词的数量。 • 此类词有：all, none, both, neither, either, some, most… • 例：⑴She has ten friends, ____ is a girl. • A. none of which B. none of whom C. who D. some of whom • ⑵I have two pens, ____ writes well. • A. none of them B. none of which • C. neither of which D. either of them
十、其他要点（二） • 非地点意义的词，表“抽象地点”，如situation(局面), point(境界,程度), case(事例), • position(境地), stage(阶段), condition(条件), circumstance(境况)…意思是“到了某种地步，在某种境况中”，关系词用where. • 例：They have reached the point ____ they have to say goodbye to each other. • A. that B. which C. where D. when • 十一、其他要点（三） • 插入语I think, I believe, I guess, I suppose, I imagine, in my opinion通常放在关系词与从句谓语动词之间。做题时，不考虑插入语。 • 例：He made another wonderful discovery,_____ of great importance to science. • A. which I think is B. which I think it is (2012) • C. which I think it D. I think is
1. The final examination will cover all _____ taught this term.(2001) A. what has been B. that has been C. that was D. which has been 2.She studied hard at school when he was young, ______contributed to success in later life.(2007) A. so that B. therefore C. that D. which 3. I’m going to spend the winter vacation in Shanghai, ______ I have relatives.（2007) A. Which B. that C. where D. when
4. We’re talking about the pinion and the pianist _____were in the concert we attended last night.(2013) that B. whom C. who D. that 5. This is the best novel _____I have ever read.(2007) A. which B. where C. that D, what
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