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Sexuality , Reproduction & Contraceptives. PPL 1OM/F. Sex Versus Gender. Sex : the qualities by which people are categorized by their reproductive organs and functions Gender : the condition of being female or male as defined by society

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sex versus gender
Sex Versus Gender
  • Sex: the qualities by which people are categorized by their reproductive organs and functions
  • Gender: the condition of being female or male as defined by society
  • Gender roles: sets of behaviours that project an image of femininity or masculinity
gender sex and the media
Gender, Sex, and the Media
  • “The media”: any form of communication that distributes information
    • Television, radio, music, movies, newspapers, magazines, billboards, the Internet
    • Sex as a Sales Tool
    • Double Standards in Sexuality (stereotypes)
    • Looking Good: Beauty Myths
sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • People vary in terms of their sexual attraction towards others
  • Heterosexual: woman to man, man to woman
  • Homosexual: woman to woman, man to man
    • Lesbian/Gay
    • Bisexual
    • Transsexual/Transgender
    • Questioning ones sexuality/ self identification
  • Canadian Human Rights Code:

- Strictly prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of sexual orientation.

sexuality and childhood d evelopment puberty

Sexuality and Childhood Development:Puberty

Visible Changes:

Breast development

Height and weight increases

Hair growth

Boys only-

Adam’s apple will begin to show

Shoulders and chest will grow bigger

Muscles will become bigger

Voice changes for some boys

Testicles gradually grow a little larger

Penis will grow longer and wider as the rest of the body grows

sexuality and childhood development puberty
Sexuality and Childhood Development:Puberty

Visible Changes:

Girls Only-

  • One breast often develops before the other breast
  • It can take 3-5 years before breasts are fully grown
  • Breasts are often unequal in size
  • Hips broaden to prepare for the delivery of a baby

Chemical and Emotional Changes:

  • “wet dreams”
  • Feelings of sexual attraction emerge
  • Sudden mood changes occur
  • Weight gain before growth spurt
sexuality and childhood development puberty1
Sexuality and Childhood Development:Puberty

Social/Relationship Changes:

  • Dating (i.e., going with)
  • Physical intimacy (kissing, petting)
  • Preoccupation with sexuality (e.g., frequently makes references to sexuality)


  • Premature initiation of adult sexual activity
  • Difficulty adjusting to homosexual or bisexual orientation
  • Difficulty with body image
  • Difficulty with social skills
the female reproductive system
The Female Reproductive System

The External System (outside the body):


  • Consists of labia majora and labia minora (outer and inner folds of skin)


  • Small, sensitive organ located above the opening to the vagina
  • Function is one of sexual pleasure

Three openings

  • Urethra, vagina, anus
internal inside the body reproductive organs
Internal (inside the body)Reproductive Organs


  • Leads to the other internal reproductive organs
  • Menstruation, intercourse, childbirth

A thin membrane (the hymen) surrounds the vaginal opening, may not be noticeable in some


  • where the baby grows
  • nowhere near the stomach,

about the size of a fist

internal inside the body reproductive organs1
Internal (inside the body)Reproductive Organs

Fallopian tubes

  • A tube on either side of the uterus
  • Passageway from the uterus to ovary (ies)


  • Females have 1-2 ovaries
  • Reproductive glands
  • Start producing hormones at puberty
  • Hold about 250,000 ova (eggs) until puberty when they start being released –one released per month
internal inside the body reproductive organs2
Internal (inside the body)Reproductive Organs


  • Also called egg cell
  • Cellwhich, when united with male sperm cell, can create a baby – this is called fertilization
path of an egg
Path of an Egg
  • Ovary
  • Fallopian tube (where it waits to meet a sperm)
  • Uterus
  • Cervix
  • Vagina
male reproductive organs1
Male Reproductive Organs

The External System:


    • Tube-like organ of spongy tissue
    • Urethra runs lengthwise through centre of penis
    • Head of penis is called the glans which is a source of sexual pleasure


  • Male sex glands (1-2) held in a sac called the scrotum
  • On outside of body to keep temperature cooler than body temperature for healthy sperm production
  • One hangs lower – this is normal
  • Very sensitive area – easily damaged – important to protect e.g. During sports activities
  • Only need one testicle to be fertile (able to reproduce)
the external system
The External System


  • Special cells produced in testicle at puberty
  • Very small (over 300 million in 15 ml of semen)
  • Millions are made every day
  • Mix with fluid in glands to form a white sticky fluid called semen
  • Swim up vagina, through uterus to fallopian tube to fertilize an egg
  • Sperm can last in the female body for 5-7 days
the external system1
The External System


  • Tube which is located in penis
  • 2 branches – one to bladder, one to vas deferens
  • Two substances which come out of the urethra are urine and semen, they cannot come out at the same time
  • When penis is ready to release semen, a valve blocks off branch to the bladder so urine cannot escape
internal inside organs
Internal (inside) Organs

Vas Deferens

  • Tube which carries sperm out of testicles

Prostate Gland

  • Starts producing a fluid at puberty in which sperm are kept alive
  • Sperm + fluid = substance called semen

Seminal Vesicles

  • Two small pouches behind the bladder that produce fluid
  • This fluid mixes with sperm and other fluid to produce semen
path of a sperm
Path of a Sperm
  • Testicle
  • Epididymis
  • Vas Deferens
  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Prostate Gland
  • Bladder
  • Urethra
caring for the reproductive systems
Caring for the Reproductive Systems

Shower or bathe daily with soap and water.

Shower after all physical activity.

Wash hair.

Wash clothes often.

Wear fresh undergarments daily.

Change pad/tampon frequently.

Wear deodorant.

caring for the reproductive systems1
Caring for the Reproductive Systems

Dangers of un-cleanliness for males and females:

Examples: Yeast Infections, Vulvovaginitis, Open sores, odour, bacterial infections, discharge, and jock itch.

changes in the reproductive organs girls
Changes In The Reproductive Organs: Girls


  • once a month an egg is released from one ovary
  • If egg is not fertilized (united with a sperm) in a day or so, it dissolves.


  • Hormones from ovaries send message to uterus to grow a thick, soft lining of tissue and blood every month.
  • This lining contains nutrients that would be needed to nourish the egg and sperm if fertilization occurred
  • If the egg is not fertilized in the fallopian tube, the lining is not needed to nourish a baby, so the uterus sheds the lining, takes 5-7 days to shed lining – this is called menstruation(having a period).
  • Usually menstruation occurs once a month – bloody discharge drips out of the body through the vagina
changes in the reproductive organs girls1
Changes In The Reproductive Organs: Girls
  • This continues to happen over and over again. That is why we call it the menstrual cycle.
  • Some women experience menstrual cramps which can be relieved with anti-inflammatory pills, exercise, decreasing salt intake, or hot water bottles.
  • Menstruation is a normal change of puberty. Women can continue to participate in regular daily activities (e.g. physical education classes, gymnastics, swimming, etc.), and do EVERYDAY!
  • Personal hygiene (i.e. bathing) is even more important at this time as oil secretion from hair and skin may increase and menstrual blood may get dried in pubic hair.
tampons and pads
Tampons and Pads

Feminine Hygeine

  • Sanitary pads or tampons are used to absorb menstrual fluid
  • Always wipe from front to back to help prevent infection

Pads and Tampons

  • Various sizes of pads available, as the flow varies
  • Must change pads frequently, approximately every 3-4 hours
  • Dispose of pads/tampon applicator in wastebasket rather than toilet. Don’t leave them on the floor!
male reproductive system
Male Reproductive System
  • Testicles produce sperm
  • Sperm move from testicles to the epididymis
  • During ejaculation, sperm from the epididymis move through the vas deferens to collect semen
  • Penis must be erect for ejaculation to occur
  • Semen is ejaculated through the urethra
male reproductive system1
Male Reproductive System

How Do Erections Happen?

  • Sexual thoughts send message to penis – thickens and sticks out from the body
  • Spongy tissue fills up with extra blood
  • Happens for physical reasons even before puberty
  • Can happen when you least expect it or want it (e.g. First thing in the morning, during sleep, vibrations e.g. Riding a bus, not always related to sexual thoughts.)
  • Can be frightening and embarrassing
  • Important to realize that it is a normal process of growing up
  • An erection does not mean an ejaculation must occur – erection will go away on its own
  • Size of penis varies – all sizes work well – less of a difference when erect
male reproductive system2
Male Reproductive System


  • The release of semen from penis occurs during an erection
  • Millions of sperm in one ejaculation
  • Usually has to be some extra stimulation of the penis for this to happen e.g. During sexual intercourse or masturbation – this is an orgasm
sexual relationship know your options
Sexual Relationship? Know your Options
  • Abstinence
  • Contraceptive Methods and Barriers Against Disease:
    • condoms (male/female)
    • sponges and spermicides

Hormonal Methods of


    • the Pill
    • the Patch
    • contraceptive injections
    • intrauterine system
  • Natural Methods of Contraception:
    • fertility awareness
  • Surgical Methods
    • intrauterine device
    • female sterilization
    • male sterilization
barrier methods
Barrier Methods


  • condoms (male/female)

How does it work?

Acts as a physical barrier preventing direct genital contact and the exchange of genital fluids, so the sperm does not enter the uterus and fertilize the egg

• A new barrier is used for each repeated act of intercourse

    • Types:
  • -spermicide/sponge

How do they work?


• Fits over the cervix

• Traps and absorbs sperm

• Spermicide in the sponge disables the sperm

• Effective for up to 12 hours


• Contain an ingredient that disables sperm

hormonal methods
Hormonal Methods


Birth Control Pill

Prescription tablets taken once a day, at the same time everyday!

How does it work?

Stop the release of a mature egg

• Thicken the cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to get to the egg

• Change the lining of the uterus making implantation difficult


Hormonal Injections (Depo-Provera)

What is it?

• It contains a hormone called progesterone; it does not

contain estrogen

• The injection is given in the upper arm or buttocks every

12 to13 weeks (four times a year)

How does it work?

• Prevents the ovary from releasing an egg

• Thickens the cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm

to get to the egg

• Changes the lining of the uterus making implantation


hormonal methods1
Hormonal Methods


The Patch

How does it work?

A patch that releases hormones through the skin

• Can be placed on the buttocks, upper outer arms, lower abdomen, or upper torso excluding the breast

• A new patch is applied once a week for three weeks followed by one week without a patch

  • Types:


What is it?

• A T-shaped device that contains a hormone called levonorgestrel

• The hormone is released slowly over time and acts on the lining of the uterus

• It is inserted into the uterus by your physician in the doctor’s office

How does it work?

• Thickens the cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to reach the egg

• Causes changes in the lining of the uterus that helps to prevent implantation

• In some women, it may prevent the ovary from releasing an egg

hormonal methods2
Hormonal Methods


Vaginal Ring

What is it?

• A flexible, nearly transparent ring

• The ring releases a continuous dose of hormones for

three weeks while it is in the vagina

How does it work?

• Prevents the ovary from releasing an egg

• Thickens the cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm

to reach the egg

• Changes the lining of the uterus making implantation difficult

Myths and Misconceptions about Hormonal Contraception

  • Causes weight gain
  • Causes acne
  • Causes infertility
  • Causes birth defects
  • Shouldtake a break from time to time
  • Smokers should not be taking it
  • Women over age 35 should not take the Pill
  • No need for condoms if you’re on the Pill
side effects of hormonal contraception
Side-Effects of Hormonal Contraception

Sideeffects that may occur during the first few months on hormonal contraception include :

  • irregular bleeding, spotting
  • nausea
  • mood swings
  • bloating
  • breast tenderness
  • headaches
s t e r i l i z a t i o n
S t e r i l i z a t i o n

Female Sterilization

Tubal ligation

What is it?

• A surgical procedure to close or block the fallopian tubes

• A clip or a ring

• Cautery (an electric current)

• Removing a small piece of each tube

Male Sterilization


What is it?

  • A surgical procedure to close or block

the vas deferens (the tubes that carry sperm

to the penis)

chances of catching an sti
Chances of Catching an STI
  • Having unprotected sex
  • You have a new partner
  • Your partner has sex with others
  • You or your partner uses injection drugs
  • Sharing needles for drugs, piercing, tattoos
  • Some can be transferred through sharing razors, toothbrushes, skin contact
  • Pregnancy
when should i go to the dr
When Should I Go to the Dr.?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • Are you thinking about becoming sexually active?
  • Do you want to get some form of birth control?
  • Are you experiencing any sort of physical discomfort- abdomen, penis, vagina, lower back, unexplained fever, excessive discharge, burning when urinating, blood in urine, warts or blisters on genitalia, etc.
reproductive concerns you need to be aware of
Reproductive concerns YOU need to be aware of!
  • Endometriosis:
    • When tissue normally found within the uterus starts to grow on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina, vulva, or other parts of the pelvic cavity
    • Can lead to sterility if left untreated
  • Ovarian cysts:
    • Non-cancerous sacs filled with fluid or semi-solid material
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
surviving the sexual health exam
Surviving the Sexual Health Exam
  • You should feel comfortable with your doctor
  • It’s okay to ask questions
  • You don’t have to go alone
  • Relax
  • You will need to ask for specific tests
  • Trust your instincts

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