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Measurement, Verification, and Commissioning

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Measurement, Verification, and Commissioning. Why You Need M&V. To assure yourself that the project is performing as expected To report achieved savings to HUD To assure savings persistence To verify a savings guarantee or calculate the ESCO payment

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Presentation Transcript
why you need m v
Why You Need M&V
  • To assure yourself that the project is performing as expected
  • To report achieved savings to HUD
  • To assure savings persistence
  • To verify a savings guarantee or calculate the ESCO payment
  • To establish basis for savings adjustments if needed
m v needs to address 3 things
M&V Needs to Address 3 Things
  • How baseline of energy use or costs will be established
  • How energy savings after project installation will be determined
  • How the baseline will be adjusted if large changes in the operation of the building occur after project installation
the concept of m v can be simple
The Concept of M&V Can be Simple
  • For Example:
    • Average of energy bills for last 3 years gives a baseline of energy use or energy costs
    • Compare energy bills after project installation to baseline to determine savings
    • If large changes in the operation of the building occur, it may be necessary to adjust the baseline
measurement and verification steps
Measurement and Verification Steps
  • Pre-ECM Installation
    • Establish baseline energy use: established with most recent 3 years of utility data (usually the rolling base for contract)
    • Verify baseline conditions: occupancy patterns, vacancy rates, equipment usage
    • Determine appropriate M&V methodology to use and necessary details for data collection and reporting
measurement and verification steps cont
Measurement and Verification Steps (cont.)
  • Post-ECM Installation
    • Verify installation and correct operation
    • Verify ongoing potential to generate savings
    • Adjust baseline energy use for material and weather changes, if necessary
    • Quantify post-installation energy use
    • Quantify energy and cost savings
    • Report savings to HA on monthly or quarterly basis (annually to HUD)
elements of savings determination
Elements of Savings Determination




2) Baseline


Adjusted Baseline

1) Baseline

Energy Usage

“Contracted” Savings

3) Post-ECM


“Apparent” Savings


  • Baseline — mutually agreed upon, calculated or measured energy use and cost, usually an average of most previous 3 years of utility data
  • Post-ECM performance — post-ECM calculated or measured energy use and cost
  • Adjusted baseline — adjustments due to changes beyond the ESCO’s control, such as:
    • Occupancy, equipment loading or efficiencies, or building usage changes
    • Set point changes
    • Physical changes to a building
    • Weather
definitions cont
Definitions (cont.)
  • Adjusted baseline — adjustments due to changes beyond the ESCO’s control, such as:
    • Occupancy or building usage
    • Set point temperatures or scheduling
    • Physical changes to building envelope or structure
    • Weather conditions
    • Equipment loading and/or operating efficiency
    • Recent maintenance work that affects equipment operation or performance
    • Utility rate adjustment
calculating savings
Calculating Savings




Measured/ Calculated/ Stipulated














use standard m v protocols
Use Standard M&V Protocols
  • International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP, formerly NEMVP)
    • The general guideline — a living document
    • 1-800-DOE-EREC or
  • Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) M&V Guidelines
    • Application of IPMVP for federal sector
    • 1-800-DOE-EREC or
  • American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Guideline 14
    • Technical foundation
m v options
M&V Options
  • A - Estimate performance & operation by ECM
  • B - Measure performance & operation by ECM
  • C - Measure combined performance/operation for whole building or site
  • D - Calibrate a model to Option B and/or C data, estimate performance & operation
m v options cost vs accuracy
M&V Options: Cost vs. Accuracy

Customer and ESCO balance cost and accuracy

m v reporting requirements
M&V Reporting Requirements
  • Submitted monthly or quarterly (reports should clearly indicate performance period)
  • Data from reports will be used for annual reconciliation with HUD (ensure that all necessary data is available)
  • ESCOs should review reports quarterly with appropriate HA representative and request written acknowledgement/acceptance of report from HA
  • Reports should have a summary page of savings followed by details on approach used, assumptions, data sources, and calculations
m v reporting requirements cont
M&V Reporting Requirements (cont.)
  • Reports should thoroughly document baseline adjustments, modifications to ECMs and resulting savings impacts, duration of impacts, and reasoning for variations in performance
  • ESCOs should provide contact information for M&V inquiries by HAs
  • Both cost and energy savings should be provided for each measure, where appropriate
  • Details on changes in utility costs should be provided
m v lessons learned
M&V Lessons Learned
  • Pick the right option(s)
    • Balance cost, accuracy, and technical appropriateness
  • Baselines
    • KISS (keep it simple stupid)
    • If you have historical data, use it
    • If not, collect what you need during project development
    • Address baselines for every budget on the table
      • Energy, maintenance, etc.
m v lessons learned cont
M&V Lessons Learned (cont.)
  • Energy savings determination
    • KISS (keep it simple stupid)
    • Live up to your obligations (e.g., baseline adjustments)
    • Establish means of addressing unreported material changes and other savings disputes
three keys to successful m v
Three Keys to Successful M&V
  • Keep it as simple as possible:

(1) It does need to provide a reasonable basis for determining the savings from your particular project

(2) It does need to provide a reasonable basis for verifying guarantees or determining payments

(3) It does not need to do more than (1) and (2)

retrofit commissioning
Retrofit Commissioning

What is it?

  • Systematic process that ensures that retrofit systems are designed, installed, tested, and capable of being operated and maintained according to the owner’s needs
  • Insurance policy; ensures owners that projects will have expected (or higher) benefit-to-cost ratios and that buildings are safe and comfortable
performance frustrations
Performance Frustrations
  • 1994 study of 60 existing buildings:
    • 50% suffered from control problems
    • 40% had problems with HVAC equipment
    • 33% experienced sensor malfunction
    • 25% had inoperable EMCS, economizers, and/or variable-speed drives
    • 15% were missing specified equipment
benefits of commissioning
Benefits of Commissioning
  • Quality Assurance
    • prevents problems from developing (fewer maintenance headaches)
    • anticipates and regulates system interaction
    • implements a method of meeting mechanical, electrical, and control requirements (incl. maintenance of equipment warranties)
benefits of commissioning cont
Benefits of Commissioning (cont.)
  • Confirms Owners/Design Intent:
    • resolves design problems
    • improves performance of building equipment
    • improves interactions between building systems
    • improves IAQ and occupant comfort
tab and commissioning
TAB and Commissioning
  • Testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB):
    • adjustment of building air and water flows to meet design specifications
    • does not ensure operational performance (efficiency, control, system interaction)
    • a component of Commissioning
  • Commissioning is broader in scope:
    • diagnostic tests collect operational data to determine whether problems exist
    • functional tests apply procedures that may reveal causes of problems (efficiency, operational flaws)
the commissioning team
The Commissioning Team
  • Building Owner or Owner’s Representative
  • Commissioning Agent (ESCO Representative or 3rd Party)
  • Designers
  • Installation Contractor/Manufacturers Representative
  • Building Operator
  • Testing Specialist
commissioning plan
Commissioning Plan
  • Drafted by Cx Agent (included in ESA), finalized with input from Cx team
  • Addresses the following issues:
    • Scope or level of commissioning
    • Commissioning schedule
    • Team member responsibilities
    • Communication, reporting, and management protocols
    • Documentation requirements
    • Detailed scope of testing
    • Detailed scope of monitoring
    • Recommended training format
design intent documentation
Design Intent Documentation
  • Occupants’ assumed intention of the design and of the operation of the building
  • Detailed explanation and documentation of ideas, concepts, and criteria that define acceptable building operation
  • Defined by bid specifications for each system
  • The commissioning agent must ensure that actual performance of the building meets the design intent
design intent documentation cont
Design Intent Documentation (cont.)
  • Addresses the following issues:
    • System description
    • Objectives and functional use of system
    • Occupancy requirements
    • IAQ
    • Performance criteria (efficiency, energy, tolerances of IAQ)
    • Budget considerations and limitations
    • Restrictions and limitations of the facility’s systems
must commission retrofits
“Must-Commission” Retrofits
  • Lighting control (daylighting, occupancy sensors)
  • Energy management control systems/strategies
  • Pneumatic equipment
  • HVAC-related plant equipment
  • Air-distribution systems