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# Waves

Waves. The Nature of Waves. Wave is a traveling disturbance. Wave carries energy from place to place. There are two basic types of waves: Transverse and longitudinal waves. . Transverse waves.

## Waves

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### Presentation Transcript

1. Waves

2. The Nature of Waves Wave is a traveling disturbance. Wave carries energy from place to place. There are two basic types of waves: Transverse and longitudinal waves.

3. Transverse waves A transverse wave is one in which the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. Examples: Light wave, waves on a guitar string.

4. Longitudinal Waves Longitudinal wave is one in which the disturbance is parallel to the line of travel of the wave. Example: Sound wave in air is a longitudinal wave.

5. Water Waves Water waves are partly transverse and longitudinal.

6. Periodic Waves Periodic waves are waves that repeat.

7. Amplitude, Wavelength, and Period The amplitude, A is the maximum disturbance. The wavelength,λ  is the horizontal length of one cycle of the wave. The period, T is the time required for one complete up/down cycle of the wave.

8. Frequency Frequency is the number of waves per unit time.

9. Wave Speed

10. Quiz

11. The Nature of Sound Longitudinal Sound Waves Sound in air is a longitudinalwave that is created by a vibrating object, such as a guitar string, the human vocal cords, or the diaphragm of a loudspeaker.

12. Sound cannot propagate in a vacuum

13. How do we hear?

14. Wave Picture

15. The Frequency of a Sound Wave Audible Range: 20 Hz ----- 20,000 Hz. Infrasonic waves: Sound waves with frequencies < 20 Hz. Rhinoceroses use infrasonic frequencies as low as 5 Hz to call one another Ultrasonic waves: Sound waves with frequencies > 20,000 Hz. Bats use ultrasonic frequencies up to 100 kHz for locating their food sources and navigating.

16. The Speed of Sound

17. Radio Waves FM vs AM: What's the difference? AM: The amplitude of the signal is varied to incorporate the sound information. Frequencies are in kHz. FM: The frequency of the carrier signal is varied to incorporate the sound information. Frequencies are in MHz.

18. FM vs AMAdvantages and Disadvantages FM signals are not affected by static. With an FM broadcast, slight changes in amplitude don't matter -- since the audio signal is conveyed through changes in frequency, the FM receiver can just ignore changes in amplitude. AM carrier waves have much longer wavelengths than FM carrier waves, and as a result, they can bend around obstacles like mountains and buildings better than FM waves and can travel greater distances before the signal fades.

19. The Electromagnetic Spectrum

20. Constructive Interference of Sound Waves Wavelength = λ = 1 m Path difference = 0

21. Destructive Interference Wavelength = λ = 1 m Path difference = λ/2= 0.5 m

22. Noise-canceling headphones utilize destructive interference

23. Beats

24. Diffraction Diffraction is the bending of a wave around an obstacle or the edges of an opening.

25. Diffraction of Sound

26. Reflection of Light The law of reflection: The angle of incidence = The angle of reflection.

27. Refraction of Light

28. Refraction and Speed of the Wave

29. Law of Refraction

30. The Doppler Effect Effect on frequency or pitch due to relative motion between the source of sound and observer/listener.

31. Doppler Effect

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