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The Many Revolutions of 1917
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  1. The Many Revolutions of 1917

  2. Provisional Government

  3. Dual Power Provisional Government • Middle classes, urban dwellers • Liberal democratic parties • Prince L’vov • Aleksandr Kerensky • Mistakes: • Continued the war effort • Refused to give land to peasants • Failed to solve food supply problem • Delayed calling Constituent Assembly

  4. Revolutionary Petrograd

  5. Dual Power Petrograd Soviet: • Workers • Soldiers • Executive Committee: • Mensheviks • Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) • Bolsheviks • Refused to take power • Failed to see the threat from the Left

  6. Petrograd Soviet of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies

  7. Lenin returns, April 1917 • Finland Station • April Theses: • No Support for PG • Bourgeois Revolution • Elimination of Army, police and bureaucracy • Pay govt. employees no more than workers • “All Power to the Soviets!” • not Bolshevik power

  8. The Bolsheviks of 1917 • Marxists • Almost dead early 1917 • Tightly organized, but then mass party • Led and followed masses • Very good organizers, especially of soviets. • Split over goals: • World Revolution: Lenin and Trotsky • Caretaker govt.: L. Kamenev • Slogans: “Bread, Peace, Land!” “All Power to the Soviets!”

  9. Peasant Revolutions • Slow to hear • Village skhod -> soviet • Passed decree • Seized: • Land • Forest • Fought over the spoils • Localism

  10. National Revolutions • e.g. Ukrainian Central Rada • Autonomy • Kerensky and PG split • Ukrainianized regiments • But limited peasants’ support

  11. The July Days • Kerensky’s June offensive failed. • Workers, soldiers, sailors demonstrated: “All Power to the Soviets!” • Some Bolsheviks encouraged them. • Called for end to the war. • Demanded Soviet seize power. • PG cracked down; over 700 wounded and killed. • Bolsheviks blamed; many arrested. • Lenin fled abroad.