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    4. organizations are deliberately planned groups with specific apparent goal or goals generally designed to facilitate the participation of the particular individuals who participate at any one time having a more or less well developed set of formal rules and a relatively fixed structure of authority, roles and responsibilities that is independent of the personal characteristics of those filling the roles at any particular time. Structuralist Breadth of perspectives that exist between the spectrum of structuralist and processual ontologies Process philosophy stance which states that ..it is logically misleading to speak of what is or things that are (Honderich, 1995, page 721) or, put simply, that organizations as entities do not exist. Relationships and connections within, across and between organizations, are of much significance not only to learning within organizations but also to our understanding of organization and organizations.organizations are deliberately planned groups with specific apparent goal or goals generally designed to facilitate the participation of the particular individuals who participate at any one time having a more or less well developed set of formal rules and a relatively fixed structure of authority, roles and responsibilities that is independent of the personal characteristics of those filling the roles at any particular time. Structuralist Breadth of perspectives that exist between the spectrum of structuralist and processual ontologies Process philosophy stance which states that ..it is logically misleading to speak of what is or things that are (Honderich, 1995, page 721) or, put simply, that organizations as entities do not exist. Relationships and connections within, across and between organizations, are of much significance not only to learning within organizations but also to our understanding of organization and organizations.

    5. Holons Wilber (2000), uses the term 'holon' coined by Arthur Koestler, from the Greek holos or whole with the suffix on, suggesting a part (as in proton or neutron). A holon refers to an entity which is a whole and simultaneously a part of some other whole. Obvious examples of holons are whole atoms which are part of a whole molecules, which are part of whole cells, which are part of whole organisms and so on. Social Holons For Koestler, social as well as biological entities are holons. 'In social hierarchies it is self evident: every social holon individual, family, clan, tribe, nation etc is a coherent whole relative to its constituent parts, yet at the same time part of a larger social entity.' Koestler, 1980, page 452. Everythings a holon In actuality, everything is a holon of some sort since every entity, whilst being a whole or also a part of something else. This is an infinite process or structure the nesting of parts within wholes at all levels. Wholeness and communion Holons are driven in two directions. exist as a separate entity has to maintain its own wholeness, agency or identity communion with other wholes of which it is a part, the holon has to merge with its environment and, therefore, its existence depends upon its ability it fit as part of something else (Wilber, 2000). The individual within an organization is both a whole with identity and agency and a part in communion with other wholes of varying size and structure teams, projects, partnerships, departments etc of increasing wholeness. Avoiding the negative and domineering associations with the term hierarchy, Koestler (1980) uses the terms holarchic or holarchy to refer to a natural hierarchy (Koestler, 1980, page 452). Virtually all processes that grow or develop occur via natural hierarchies or holarchies. Not only does this influence activity, relationships and structure, it raises the possibility of a holarchy of learning individual learning whilst integral is also nested within other learning structures, processes or potentials pairings, teams with shared interests and concerns, small groups, projects each of which make a unique contribution as a whole with bounded integrity whilst at the same time as parts of larger wholes. Holons Wilber (2000), uses the term 'holon' coined by Arthur Koestler, from the Greek holos or whole with the suffix on, suggesting a part (as in proton or neutron). A holon refers to an entity which is a whole and simultaneously a part of some other whole. Obvious examples of holons are whole atoms which are part of a whole molecules, which are part of whole cells, which are part of whole organisms and so on. Social Holons For Koestler, social as well as biological entities are holons. 'In social hierarchies it is self evident: every social holon individual, family, clan, tribe, nation etc is a coherent whole relative to its constituent parts, yet at the same time part of a larger social entity.' Koestler, 1980, page 452. Everythings a holon In actuality, everything is a holon of some sort since every entity, whilst being a whole or also a part of something else. This is an infinite process or structure the nesting of parts within wholes at all levels. Wholeness and communion Holons are driven in two directions. exist as a separate entity has to maintain its own wholeness, agency or identity communion with other wholes of which it is a part, the holon has to merge with its environment and, therefore, its existence depends upon its ability it fit as part of something else (Wilber, 2000). The individual within an organization is both a whole with identity and agency and a part in communion with other wholes of varying size and structure teams, projects, partnerships, departments etc of increasing wholeness. Avoiding the negative and domineering associations with the term hierarchy, Koestler (1980) uses the terms holarchic or holarchy to refer to a natural hierarchy (Koestler, 1980, page 452). Virtually all processes that grow or develop occur via natural hierarchies or holarchies. Not only does this influence activity, relationships and structure, it raises the possibility of a holarchy of learning individual learning whilst integral is also nested within other learning structures, processes or potentials pairings, teams with shared interests and concerns, small groups, projects each of which make a unique contribution as a whole with bounded integrity whilst at the same time as parts of larger wholes.

    6. Organizational Learning is not just the sum of individual learning. Although Organizational Learning occurs through individuals, it would be a mistake to conclude that Organizational Learning is nothing but the cumulative result of their members learning. Organizations do not have brains but they have cognitive systems and memories. Hedberg, 1981, page 6. It is the process of exchanging information, knowledge and understanding by individuals that leads to potential, not necessarily actualised, changes in practice, behaviour and/or relationships in different parts or across an organization. Organizational Learning is not just the sum of individual learning. Although Organizational Learning occurs through individuals, it would be a mistake to conclude that Organizational Learning is nothing but the cumulative result of their members learning. Organizations do not have brains but they have cognitive systems and memories. Hedberg, 1981, page 6. It is the process of exchanging information, knowledge and understanding by individuals that leads to potential, not necessarily actualised, changes in practice, behaviour and/or relationships in different parts or across an organization.

    7. Cyert and March (1963), define Organizational Learning as adaptive behaviour in an organization which occurs over time. Cangeloni and Dill (1965) add to the concept of adaptation by emphasising that it occurs through interaction at and between different levels within an organization: individual, subgroup and organizational. Argyris and Schon (1978), define Organizational Learning as the process within an organization by which organizational members detect errors or anomalies and correct them through organizational theory-in-use. Duncan and Weiss (1979), stress that the individual is the only entity that can learn and that he/she must be seen as part of a system of learning which involves exchanges of what is learned amongst individuals. Furthermore, it is through Organizational Learning that knowledge about the relationship between action and outcomes and its effect is developed. Huber (1991), uses the concept of an entity individual group, organization, industry or society to describe how, through the processing of information, the range of potential behaviours is changed. An organization learns if any of its units acquires knowledge. Weick and Roberts (1996), see Organizational Learning as consisting of the interrelated actions of individuals which result in a collective mind; it is the connection between behaviours, rather than people. Cyert and March (1963), define Organizational Learning as adaptive behaviour in an organization which occurs over time. Cangeloni and Dill (1965) add to the concept of adaptation by emphasising that it occurs through interaction at and between different levels within an organization: individual, subgroup and organizational. Argyris and Schon (1978), define Organizational Learning as the process within an organization by which organizational members detect errors or anomalies and correct them through organizational theory-in-use. Duncan and Weiss (1979), stress that the individual is the only entity that can learn and that he/she must be seen as part of a system of learning which involves exchanges of what is learned amongst individuals. Furthermore, it is through Organizational Learning that knowledge about the relationship between action and outcomes and its effect is developed. Huber (1991), uses the concept of an entity individual group, organization, industry or society to describe how, through the processing of information, the range of potential behaviours is changed. An organization learns if any of its units acquires knowledge. Weick and Roberts (1996), see Organizational Learning as consisting of the interrelated actions of individuals which result in a collective mind; it is the connection between behaviours, rather than people.

    8.

    9. Tradition of conflict (Marx, Weber, Selznick, Gouldner) the role of organizational learning in maintaining particular power groups within organizations. knowledge and learning is non-transparent conceals the social conditions of its production. Knowledge is power which is used by management and leaders to legitimize control and to maintain hierarchical relationships. Controlled learning learning is going to controlled, limited, restricted and exploitative. will result in the learning of teachers being tokenistic and superficial as it is divorced from experience and the needs of the individual. As meaningful individual learning ceases, meaningful organizational learning ceases too. Alerts us to the consequences for learning of a such structuralist and authoritarian approach. DANGER OF THIS IN AN ATTAINMENT DRIVEN EDUCATIONAL CULTURE Oxymoron Learning and organizing are antithetical processes. The former learning - focuses upon disorganization and growing variety The latter- organizing - on a forgetting and reduction in variety. The Rational-Utilitarian Tradition Homans March and Simon. conscious learning that occurs when an organizations performance does not meet aspiration levels Paradoxes arise when there is ambiguity regarding alternative solutions Organizational Learning activates an exchange network which is a market for knowledge and skills. Advantages and disadvantages: (danger of disconnection) The Durkheimian Tradition From the perspective of what we might label, The Durkheimian Tradition, learning is seen as a function of the organizations which engenders change and conservation. Organizational learning has a manifest function which is to achieve the results that individuals strive for - to develop new approaches, to experiment, to innovate ie to engender change. latent function which results in socialization within the school and, consequently, teachers take (or do not take) ownership of cultural norms and values eg to engender conservation. A post-modernist perspective (Derrida, Foucault) Finally from a sociological standpoint, from we see that in a school as in any organization, there will be multiple perspectives of learning and practice. Participants in a community such as a school utilise a narrative capacity to narrate their experience and that of others when making sense of the world; there exist multiple narratives with multiple meanings. No right Discursive practice Organizational learning is, therefore, a discursive practice as is the generation and use of knowledge. Organizational learning, just as for individual learning, requires autonomy, choice, freedom and trust. It might be said that the existence of as many perspectives as there are individuals means that learning is always individual and that organizational learning cannot and does not occur.Tradition of conflict (Marx, Weber, Selznick, Gouldner) the role of organizational learning in maintaining particular power groups within organizations. knowledge and learning is non-transparent conceals the social conditions of its production. Knowledge is power which is used by management and leaders to legitimize control and to maintain hierarchical relationships. Controlled learning learning is going to controlled, limited, restricted and exploitative. will result in the learning of teachers being tokenistic and superficial as it is divorced from experience and the needs of the individual. As meaningful individual learning ceases, meaningful organizational learning ceases too. Alerts us to the consequences for learning of a such structuralist and authoritarian approach. DANGER OF THIS IN AN ATTAINMENT DRIVEN EDUCATIONAL CULTURE Oxymoron Learning and organizing are antithetical processes. The former learning - focuses upon disorganization and growing variety The latter- organizing - on a forgetting and reduction in variety. The Rational-Utilitarian Tradition Homans March and Simon. conscious learning that occurs when an organizations performance does not meet aspiration levels Paradoxes arise when there is ambiguity regarding alternative solutions Organizational Learning activates an exchange network which is a market for knowledge and skills. Advantages and disadvantages: (danger of disconnection) The Durkheimian Tradition From the perspective of what we might label, The Durkheimian Tradition, learning is seen as a function of the organizations which engenders change and conservation. Organizational learning has a manifest function which is to achieve the results that individuals strive for - to develop new approaches, to experiment, to innovate ie to engender change. latent function which results in socialization within the school and, consequently, teachers take (or do not take) ownership of cultural norms and values eg to engender conservation. A post-modernist perspective (Derrida, Foucault) Finally from a sociological standpoint, from we see that in a school as in any organization, there will be multiple perspectives of learning and practice. Participants in a community such as a school utilise a narrative capacity to narrate their experience and that of others when making sense of the world; there exist multiple narratives with multiple meanings. No right Discursive practice Organizational learning is, therefore, a discursive practice as is the generation and use of knowledge. Organizational learning, just as for individual learning, requires autonomy, choice, freedom and trust. It might be said that the existence of as many perspectives as there are individuals means that learning is always individual and that organizational learning cannot and does not occur.

    10. Although the social location of individuals in organizations is, arguably, a very significant factor in Organizational Learning, it is individuals who learn and how individuals learn, must, therefore, inform the nature and extent of Organizational Learning. Classical and instrumental conditioning (stimuli /reactions; positive/negative reinforcement). Praise, encouragement, reward, remuneration. Fear, aversion. Motivation- learning requires motivated behaviour. interplay between a persons characteristics and a situations characteristics what is learned must be appropriate in terms of level, timing, location, preferred learning style, relevance and impact. Quality learning time and the existence of a learning culture within schools that encourages realistic self-assessments of learning capability (self efficacy) and maximises self confidence in a supportive environment. Individuals learn from observing and modelling: specific and subtle factors appropriateness of the model: Valued and effective models who have the confidence of learners. the particular behaviour required the context (the behaviour is relevant and doable) Causal inferences inductive learning: make generalisations from observed instances (eg cats). Of significance to Organizational Learning in schools is the fact that individual learning is based upon causal inferences based upon ambiguous information. The correction of such errors and anomalies requires the systematic use of feedback mechanisms to regulate learning. [Elmore Richard Elmore: Gregory R. Anrig Professor of Educational Leadership Harvard Graduate School Discuss Elmores medical rounds model of teacher learning and professional development observation and analysis; the use of protocols which create stability and predictability in discourse around practice. protocols such as focussing upon and separating the practice being observed not the person, requiring descriptive discourse rather than normative discourse (ie the giving of opinions). When it becomes normative, ask for evidence.] Although the social location of individuals in organizations is, arguably, a very significant factor in Organizational Learning, it is individuals who learn and how individuals learn, must, therefore, inform the nature and extent of Organizational Learning. Classical and instrumental conditioning (stimuli /reactions; positive/negative reinforcement). Praise, encouragement, reward, remuneration. Fear, aversion. Motivation- learning requires motivated behaviour. interplay between a persons characteristics and a situations characteristics what is learned must be appropriate in terms of level, timing, location, preferred learning style, relevance and impact. Quality learning time and the existence of a learning culture within schools that encourages realistic self-assessments of learning capability (self efficacy) and maximises self confidence in a supportive environment. Individuals learn from observing and modelling: specific and subtle factors appropriateness of the model: Valued and effective models who have the confidence of learners. the particular behaviour required the context (the behaviour is relevant and doable) Causal inferences inductive learning: make generalisations from observed instances (eg cats). Of significance to Organizational Learning in schools is the fact that individual learning is based upon causal inferences based upon ambiguous information. The correction of such errors and anomalies requires the systematic use of feedback mechanisms to regulate learning. [Elmore Richard Elmore: Gregory R. Anrig Professor of Educational Leadership Harvard Graduate School

    11. Interaction, interdependence, interconnection Need to have an individual and holistic view. Helicopter vision. Learning of individuals impacts upon the whole or doesnt! Cybernetics: Developing the Capacities of systems thinking The study of information, communication and control. For Morgan (1997), systems thinking, theory and practice means that learning organizations must develop capacities that allow them to undertake several functions critical to learning and development: 1 Scan and anticipate change in the environment to detect significant variations. 2 Develop an ability to question, challenge and change operating norms and assumptions 3 Allow an appropriate strategic direction and pattern of organization to emerge. 4 Become skilled in double loop learning, avoiding the establishment of limiting control systems and defensive routines. (Morgan, 1997, page 90). Links to inductive learning and to negative reinforcement from behavioural learning. Higher Order Learning double loop learning Interaction, interdependence, interconnection Need to have an individual and holistic view. Helicopter vision. Learning of individuals impacts upon the whole or doesnt! Cybernetics: Developing the Capacities of systems thinking The study of information, communication and control. For Morgan (1997), systems thinking, theory and practice means that learning organizations must develop capacities that allow them to undertake several functions critical to learning and development: 1 Scan and anticipate change in the environment to detect significant variations. 2 Develop an ability to question, challenge and change operating norms and assumptions 3 Allow an appropriate strategic direction and pattern of organization to emerge. 4 Become skilled in double loop learning, avoiding the establishment of limiting control systems and defensive routines. (Morgan, 1997, page 90). Links to inductive learning and to negative reinforcement from behavioural learning. Higher Order Learning double loop learning

    12. [Senge (Sengee) (1990, 2000) has done much to popularise the concept of the learning organization.emphasises - the role and implication of the system in behaviour, action, learning and effectiveness BUT also putting the attitude and action of the individual at the centre of change and development. Senge is at heart a systems thinker who emphasises the socio-psychological dimension of learning and development. ] Agency and structure Whilst not engaging in sociological debate he reflects the work of Antony Giddens, Ulrick Beck and Margaret Archer exploring the relationship between agency and structure in organizations. Not a dualism but a duality Agents and structure are not independent sets of phenomena (a dualism) but represent a duality. Structures which for Giddens are sets of transformation relations, organized as properties of social systems not only limit or restrict the agency of individuals their capability to act but facilitate it. Structures enable as well as constrain. Max autonomy Therefore, learning organizations, whilst ensuring quality, efficiency, effectiveness and safety through structures, systems and process also must maximise the autonomy of individuals and groups, enabling their agency their ability to effect change and transformation. Continually expanding For Senge (1990), learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacities to create what they desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured and where people are learning how to learn together. IL no guarantee of OL Organizations learn only through individuals and organizational learning cannot occur without individual learning. Individual learning does not, however, guarantee organizational learning. [Senge (Sengee) (1990, 2000) has done much to popularise the concept of the learning organization.emphasises - the role and implication of the system in behaviour, action, learning and effectiveness BUT also putting the attitude and action of the individual at the centre of change and development. Senge is at heart a systems thinker who emphasises the socio-psychological dimension of learning and development. ] Agency and structure Whilst not engaging in sociological debate he reflects the work of Antony Giddens, Ulrick Beck and Margaret Archer exploring the relationship between agency and structure in organizations. Not a dualism but a duality Agents and structure are not independent sets of phenomena (a dualism) but represent a duality. Structures which for Giddens are sets of transformation relations, organized as properties of social systems not only limit or restrict the agency of individuals their capability to act but facilitate it. Structures enable as well as constrain. Max autonomy Therefore, learning organizations, whilst ensuring quality, efficiency, effectiveness and safety through structures, systems and process also must maximise the autonomy of individuals and groups, enabling their agency their ability to effect change and transformation. Continually expanding For Senge (1990), learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacities to create what they desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured and where people are learning how to learn together. IL no guarantee of OL Organizations learn only through individuals and organizational learning cannot occur without individual learning. Individual learning does not, however, guarantee organizational learning.

    13. [Change or transformation? Change can be construed as being external to the individual, large or small, temporary or longer term, imposed or self-initiated. Personal transformation by necessity involves commitment, is long term, is self-directed and motivated.(Building a New Structure for School Leadership (2002)] HUBER: BREADTH (more) ELABORATENESS (depth) THROUGHNESS (Uniform) RESEARCH CULTURE: Elaborateness/depth; higher order learning, system thinking; Chartered Teachers teaching to a Higher standard achieved through learning and engaging in research. Desperate to engage in organizational learning!! HOLARCHY. Significantly added to our model of professionalism. Professional Learning/Clinical model of practice reflective practice; problem solving, solutions and evidence-based approach to practice; continuous learning, knowledge building and professional development (comment on long over-due and comparison with medics). Duncan and Weiss knowledge action-outcomes. DEVELOPING CAPACITIES Culture: prioritises capacity building; meeting learning needs; creating opportunities for prof learning. Elaborateness/depth; thoroughness; systems thinking; social dimension; culture: attitudes to learning; Establishment of the induction scheme beginner teachers continuing their learning in an optimum environment.stable..quality time.focus on learning.high expectationhigh degree of autonomy. HUBER: POTENTIAL BEH. Mentoring and coaching all new teachers have a mentorall teachers working with students will have undertaken mentor facilitating collaborative learning Distributed and democratic leadership.more holarchy less hierarchy. more transparencyimproved relationships across schools POST MODERNIST COLLECTIVE MIND (WEICK AND ROBERTS). INTERCONNECTEDNESS Throughness/uniformity, complexity; holons. Systems theory. Development of inter-professional and inter-agency working practices. Through integrated childrens services. (Getting it right for every child). Working and learning from and with other professionals much more commonly and purposefullyengaging in organizational learning as a client-serving practice. Identifying and overcoming barriers and difficulties. VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS. Development of Faculties within Sec Schools. - interconnectedness; autonomy. Curriculum for Excellence criticisms of current curriculum in Scotland is that it is too proscriptive; too instrumental, overloadednew curriculum will.be themed according to capacities. Successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors How schools need to develop an awareness of OL and use and develop it. Why?... - the opportunities for teacher learning in social situation OL tells us about essential to developing schools and practice - the dimensions and dynamics of professional learning in orgs - functions and dynamics of learning in orgs. Not only informs Prof learning but also the nature of Orgs themselves eg working relationships; goals and targets; styles of leadership - Schools arent necessarily learning organizations! Schools should be learning organizations! Org learning is essential to community building.[Change or transformation? Change can be construed as being external to the individual, large or small, temporary or longer term, imposed or self-initiated. Personal transformation by necessity involves commitment, is long term, is self-directed and motivated.(Building a New Structure for School Leadership (2002)] HUBER: BREADTH (more) ELABORATENESS (depth) THROUGHNESS (Uniform) RESEARCH CULTURE: Elaborateness/depth; higher order learning, system thinking; Chartered Teachers teaching to a Higher standard achieved through learning and engaging in research. Desperate to engage in organizational learning!! HOLARCHY. Significantly added to our model of professionalism. Professional Learning/Clinical model of practice reflective practice; problem solving, solutions and evidence-based approach to practice; continuous learning, knowledge building and professional development (comment on long over-due and comparison with medics). Duncan and Weiss knowledge action-outcomes. DEVELOPING CAPACITIES Culture: prioritises capacity building; meeting learning needs; creating opportunities for prof learning. Elaborateness/depth; thoroughness; systems thinking; social dimension; culture: attitudes to learning; Establishment of the induction scheme beginner teachers continuing their learning in an optimum environment.stable..quality time.focus on learning.high expectationhigh degree of autonomy. HUBER: POTENTIAL BEH. Mentoring and coaching all new teachers have a mentorall teachers working with students will have undertaken mentor facilitating collaborative learning Distributed and democratic leadership.more holarchy less hierarchy. more transparencyimproved relationships across schools POST MODERNIST COLLECTIVE MIND (WEICK AND ROBERTS). INTERCONNECTEDNESS Throughness/uniformity, complexity; holons. Systems theory. Development of inter-professional and inter-agency working practices. Through integrated childrens services. (Getting it right for every child). Working and learning from and with other professionals much more commonly and purposefullyengaging in organizational learning as a client-serving practice. Identifying and overcoming barriers and difficulties. VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS. Development of Faculties within Sec Schools. - interconnectedness; autonomy. Curriculum for Excellence criticisms of current curriculum in Scotland is that it is too proscriptive; too instrumental, overloadednew curriculum will.be themed according to capacities. Successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors How schools need to develop an awareness of OL and use and develop it. Why?... - the opportunities for teacher learning in social situation OL tells us about essential to developing schools and practice - the dimensions and dynamics of professional learning in orgs - functions and dynamics of learning in orgs. Not only informs Prof learning but also the nature of Orgs themselves eg working relationships; goals and targets; styles of leadership - Schools arent necessarily learning organizations! Schools should be learning organizations! Org learning is essential to community building.

    14. There are clear and significant parallels between the aims and intended outcomes of both action research and organizational learning. Both require the participation of concerned individuals. Both are dependent upon the generation of knowledge and understanding. Both prioritise the importance of action and the use of knowledge to improve a specific situation, to answer a question or to address a problem. Both involve members of a community or organization and expect change to impact upon the collective at different levels of organization. Both are scientific. Given this match, the use of action research as a research methodology to develop knowledge and understanding about the process of learning within organizations, seems highly appropriate. A further argument in favour of adopting AR in researching OL, is that a very wide range of research methods are adopted within action research. There are clear and significant parallels between the aims and intended outcomes of both action research and organizational learning. Both require the participation of concerned individuals. Both are dependent upon the generation of knowledge and understanding. Both prioritise the importance of action and the use of knowledge to improve a specific situation, to answer a question or to address a problem. Both involve members of a community or organization and expect change to impact upon the collective at different levels of organization. Both are scientific. Given this match, the use of action research as a research methodology to develop knowledge and understanding about the process of learning within organizations, seems highly appropriate. A further argument in favour of adopting AR in researching OL, is that a very wide range of research methods are adopted within action research.

    15. There are clear and significant parallels between the aims and intended outcomes of both action research and organizational learning. Both require the participation of concerned individuals. Both are dependent upon the generation of knowledge and understanding. Both prioritise the importance of action and the use of knowledge to improve a specific situation, to answer a question or to address a problem. Both involve members of a community or organization and expect change to impact upon the collective at different levels of organization. Both are scientific. Given this match, the use of action research as a research methodology to develop knowledge and understanding about the process of learning within organizations, seems highly appropriate. A further argument in favour of adopting AR in researching OL, is that a very wide range of research methods are adopted within action research. There are clear and significant parallels between the aims and intended outcomes of both action research and organizational learning. Both require the participation of concerned individuals. Both are dependent upon the generation of knowledge and understanding. Both prioritise the importance of action and the use of knowledge to improve a specific situation, to answer a question or to address a problem. Both involve members of a community or organization and expect change to impact upon the collective at different levels of organization. Both are scientific. Given this match, the use of action research as a research methodology to develop knowledge and understanding about the process of learning within organizations, seems highly appropriate. A further argument in favour of adopting AR in researching OL, is that a very wide range of research methods are adopted within action research.

    16. Sub Questions What processes and activities aid or enable Organizational Learning in a school? What are the perceived benefits of Organizational Learning in a school? How are these benefits best realised and sustained? Stage 1/2 : Individual Stage 2: Introducing collaborative process.Sub Questions What processes and activities aid or enable Organizational Learning in a school? What are the perceived benefits of Organizational Learning in a school? How are these benefits best realised and sustained? Stage 1/2 : Individual Stage 2: Introducing collaborative process.

    17. Stage 4: Breath, depth and elaborateness Stage 5: empirical/scientific One cycle. Many. Small contribution to making schools learning organizations and to understanding and developing organizational learning in schools. There are several concepts which are related and sound similar to OL: communities of practice; communities of inquiry, action learning sets; ?. Valuable but sub-sets. Schools very creative, dynamic, responsive orgs which should be the focus for OL research The concepts OL with the tools of AR can inform teacher learning in schools: more than individual learning; more of it; deeper, more purposeful. Educators much to gain from engaging with OL and much to lose by not doing so. Stage 4: Breath, depth and elaborateness Stage 5: empirical/scientific One cycle. Many. Small contribution to making schools learning organizations and to understanding and developing organizational learning in schools. There are several concepts which are related and sound similar to OL: communities of practice; communities of inquiry, action learning sets; ?. Valuable but sub-sets. Schools very creative, dynamic, responsive orgs which should be the focus for OL research The concepts OL with the tools of AR can inform teacher learning in schools: more than individual learning; more of it; deeper, more purposeful. Educators much to gain from engaging with OL and much to lose by not doing so.