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REVISION UNIT 4: DEPRESSION. WHAT ARE THE KEY AREAS OF THE SPECIFICATION?. 1. CLININCAL CHARACTERISITICS 2. ISSUES SURROUNDING THE CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION, INCLUDING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 3. BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION FOR EXAMPLE, GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY

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what are the key areas of the specification
WHAT ARE THE KEY AREAS OF THE SPECIFICATION?
  • 1. CLININCAL CHARACTERISITICS
  • 2. ISSUES SURROUNDING THE CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION, INCLUDING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
  • 3. BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION FOR EXAMPLE, GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 4. BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES OF DEPRESSION, INCLUDING THEIR EVALUATION IN TERMS OF APPROPRIATENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS
  • 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION FOR EXAMPLE, BEHAVIOURAL, COGNITIVE, PSYCHODYNAMIC
  • 6. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES FOR DEPRESSION AND INCLUDING THEIR EVALUATION IN TERMS OF APPROPRIATENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS.
clinical characteristics
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Outline clinical characteristics of depression
  • Outline three clinical characteristics of depression
  • What is depression?
  • How does it affect people? And who is it likely to affect?
  • What are the different types of depression recognised by the DSM-IV-TR?
  • What is the diagnositic criteria for depression? (i.e. 2 wks)
  • What are the signs/symptoms of depression?
  • ------------ KEEP IT CONCISE -------------------
  • Q may vary from 5 / 6 / 9 marks.
slide4
ISSUES SURROUNDING THE CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION, INCLUDING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
  • EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS:
  • Describe and evaluate issues in classifying or diagnosing depression
  • Discuss the issues which apply to diagnosing depression
  • To what extent are diagnoses of depression reliable and valid?
  • ----------------------------------------------------------
  • WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
  • What are the different ways of classifying depressive disorder? –(reliability)
  • How is diagnosis confirmed? – (reliability)
  • How valid are the diagnostic categories? (validity)
  • What are the issues surrounding differential diagnosis and how do they relate to validity? (validity)
  • What other issues affect the validity of diagnosis?
biological explanations describe each factor and evaluate
BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONSDescribe each factor and evaluate
  • Describe and evaluate (two or more)
  • Discuss
  • MOST IMPORTANT: MUST MAKE REFERENCE TO RESEARCH STUDIES
exam style questions
Exam style questions:
  • Outline and evaluate biological therapies as treatments of depression
  • Outline one biological therapy for the treatment of depression
psychological explanations
PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
  • 1. PSYCHODYNAMIC EXPLANATIONS:

Freud (1917) / Bowlby (1965), Bifulco et al (1987), Abela (2007), Swaffer and Hollin (2001)

EVALUATION – Difficult to test, effects of loss of parents, significance of findings

  • 2.BEHAVIOURAL EXPLANATIONS:

Lewinsohn (1974) Learning Theory, Seligman (1974) Learned Helplessness, Rehm (1977), Rice and Mclaughlin (2001)

EVALUATION – not complete, Ferster (1973), Inconsistent findings

  • 3. COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS:

Beck (1974) Hopelessness theory, Beck’s cognitive theory of depression, Boury (2001), Saisto et al (2001), Mcintosh and Fischer (2000)

EVALUATION- Effective, successful, negative thinking linked

  • 4. SOCIO-CULTURAL EXPLANATIONS:

Diathesis-stress model. Genetic disposition and reaction to stressful life/environmental factors. Leavey (2007), Cox (2007), Takaaki (2007)

exam style questions1
Exam style questions:
  • Discuss psychological explanations of depression
  • Outline one psychological explanation of depression
  • Discuss two or more psychological explanations of depression
exam style questions2
Exam style questions:
  • Outline one psychological therapy for the treatment of depression
  • Discuss psychological therapies
  • Discuss the effectiveness and appropriateness of two or more psychological therapies
  • Outline and evaluate psychological therapies as treatments of depression