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Prefixes. Ms. Hudgins. E, ef , ex. Ef - (also ex- ) - “something external or outwardly directed” E- “out” or “away from” Ex- “taking or removing out of something”. Di-, dia - dis -. Dia - “through, apart, between,” Dis – “away part”

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Ms. Hudgins

e ef ex
E, ef, ex
  • Ef- (also ex- ) - “something external or outwardly directed”
  • E- “out” or “away from”
  • Ex- “taking or removing out of something”
di dia dis
Di-, dia- dis-
  • Dia- “through, apart, between,”
  • Dis – “away part”
  • The prefix dis becomes di before consonants d, b, g, l, m, n,r or v.
co con col cor
Co, con, col, cor
  • With, together
  • Example: Cooperate = to work with, to work together
    • Co = With
    • Operate = to work
political terms

Political Terms

Ms. Hudgins

  • What does it mean to be a Republican or a Democrat?
  • List attributes of both parties.
  • Which party do you find yourself sympathizing with most? Why?
  • Latin
    • Res + Publicus – Public Affairs
  • Greek word
    • Demokratia
    • Demos - PEOPLE
political terms1
Political Terms
  • When we move into the realm of political terminology we are entering the land of lost words
  • Political words have been so abused and debased that they are almost without meaning.
  • Current Definition:
  • Communism is system of social organization in which a totalitarian state, run by a single self-appointed political party, controls all economic and social activity.
communism continued
Communism (continued)
  • Word Origins:
  • Old French: Commun meaning “common”
  • Latin: Communis or essential goods.
  • The most familiar form of communism is that established by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution of 1917.
  • Communism has generally been understood in terms of the system practiced by the former USSR and its allies in eastern Europe, in China since 1949, and in some developing countries such as Cuba, Vietnam, and North Korea.
  • Definition: noun.
  • A system of economic organization in which the state owns and controls the basic means of production and where centralized planning, rather than market forces, determines the allocation of resources.
  • Word Origins:
    • Latin term: socius (Sharing)
    • Socius – comrade a sharer, or an ally.
  • Sentence:
  • The term “socialism” has been used to describe positions as far apart as anarchism, Soviet state communism, and social democracy
  • The socialist parties that have arisen in most European countries from the late 19th century have generally tended toward social democracy.
  • Current definition:
    • noun. a process of voting, in writing and typically in secret
    • a sheet of paper we put a cross on and drop in a box on election day, unless we are dealing with voting machines.
  • Origins
    • “Ballota” – Italian - a little ball
    • Greeks – dropped a white ball of stone or metal or shell in a container when he favored a candidate, a black ball when he was against—which explains why the undesirable are still “blackballed” in our clubs.
  • Connections to other words:
    • Bullet - Bulla – Bubble, Boss, Study
    • Bullet comes down to us through the French boulette – A small ball
  • Sentence:
  • During the 1900’s there was a contrivance to deny the ballot to African American voters.
    • Current Definition:
      • Verb, persuade (someone) to act in one's favor, typically illegally or dishonestly, by a gift of money or other inducement
  • Origins:
    • French – bits odds and ends
    • Old French -
  • Sentence: An undercover agent bribedthe judge into giving a lenient sentence
  • Current Definition: Noun. Seeker after office. a person who applies for a job or is nominated for election :
  • Origin: Clad in White
    • Roman: When a Roman politician went campaigning he took care that his toga was immaculately white so that he could make the best impression possible.
    • Latin: Candidatus – Person dressed in white
    • Incandescent – white and glowing
    • Candid – a frank and honest person.
  • Definition: noun an association of manufacturers or suppliers with the purpose of maintaining prices at a high level and restricting. An agreement in restraint of trade.
  • Origins:
    • Latin: Charta – Paper. A written challenge to fight.
    • A libelous statement in writing.
    • An agreement concerning the exchange of prisoners in a war.
  • Definition:
    • Noun an authoritarian(favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom) and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.• (in general use) extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practice.
    • Word Origins
    • Italian – Fascismo
    • Latin – Fascis – a bundle, usually of sticks or rods. This bundle with the ax protruding, was the symbol of official power that was carried before all Roman magistrates.
    • Definition: noun.
      • Conducted by a sometimes irregular sort of congressman who speaks interminably to delay legislation.
      • historical a person engaging in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country for his own gain.
  • Word Origins
    • Buccaneers who infested the West Indies and the Spanish American Coast in the 17th Century were called filibusters and freebooters.
    • Freebooter – Danish
    • Spanish- filibustero
    • Definition: verb – manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.• achieve (a result) by such manipulation : a total freedom to gerrymander the results they want.
  • Word Origins
    • Began when a Massachusetts legislature ingeniously contrived to rearrange the shape of Essex county so as to better control elections. The county resembled a salamander so the governor of the state at that time time was Elbridge Gerry and a newspaper editor used it last name to create gerrymander
  • Definition:
    • Noun
    • the elected executive head of a state of the U.S.• an official appointed to govern a town or region.

Word Origins

    • Romans borrowed it from guberno
    • England turned it into governor.
  • Definition:
  • Verb. begin or introduce (a system, policy, or period)
  • admit (someone) formally to public office
    • the new president will be inaugurated on January 20.
  • Word Origin
    • Latin – Inauguratus – (In = in, augur = diviner)
    • The augurs (or prophets) of those days studied the flights and habits of birds to tell the future to the next emperor or governor.


  • a room providing a space out of which one or more other rooms or corridors lead, typically one near the entrance of a public building.
  • Word Origins
  • Began as an arbor.
  • German – lauba – shelter of foliage.
  • English – lobby – a covered walk
  • In 1640 it was first applied to the anteroom of the House of Commons, and here the lobby began and the lobbyists went to work.
  • Definition: Adj. cunning, scheming, and unscrupulous, esp. in politics or in advancing one's career.
  • Word Origins
    • Niccola Machiavelli had a brilliant mind. He was the “idea” man for politicians of the early 16th century.
    • Founded Political Science. Critics dislike him because he thought he could use any means necessary to maintain power.
    • Machiavellian policy now means a policy of craft, cunning, and bad faith.
  • Definition: Noun.
    • a person who remains aloof or independent, esp. from party politics.
    • a Republican who in 1884 refused to support James G. Blaine, the Republican nominee for president.
  • Word Origins:
    • Indian word meaning, “great man” or “chief”
    • Said to have “his mug on one of side of the political fence and his wump on the other”
  • Definition:
    • the declared policy of a political party or group.
    • an opportunity to voice one's views or initiate action :
  • Word Origins
    • French, plat meaning “flat”.
    • Since the 1800’s the word platform, in the U.S. has signified the basis of a party’s appeal to the public. The party leaders carry on endless arguments about the “planks” that are to be put in the platform, and these “planks” take us right back to the broad pieces of sawed lumber that make up the speaker’s platform.
  • Sentence:
    • The forum will provide a platform for discussion of communication issues.
  • Definitions: noun (often the polls) the process of voting in an election : the places where votes are cast in an election
  • Word Origins:
    • Middle English word
    • Polle meaning “top of head” because that was the part of a person that could be seen above the crowd when a count of “heads” was being taken.
    • Poll tax = head tax.
  • Sentence:
    • the country went to the polls on March 10.)
  • Definition:
    • Noun. the official procedure or system of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions
  • Word Origins:
    • Greek term
    • Protokollon – First leaf glued to the front of a manuscript with an index of the contents written on it.
    • Proto = first, Kolla = glue
    • Our word protocol first meant the original draft that laid down the outline or rules from which an official treaty or document was eventually drawn.
  • Sentence: Protocol forbids the prince from making any public statement in his defense.
  • Definition:advocating thorough or complete political or social reform; representing or supporting an extreme section of a political party
  • Word Origins
    • Latin
    • Radicalis, radix = root. A person who likes to go to the “root” of a matter. In its original sense, radical meant “fundamental” or “primary”
    • In the 18th century a group of English politicos came to be known as the radical reformers because they wanted to go right to the root of things and revamp the political set-up.
    • People hated them, so the word radical eventually held a negative connotation.

Sentence: He was a radical American activist.

  • Definition: Noun any of various legislative or governing bodies, in particular• the smaller upper assembly in the U.S. Congress, most U.S. states, France, and other countries.
  • Word Origins:
    • Roman
    • Senaturs, senex = an old man
    • Senate = council of elders
    • We Americans are more apt to look upon old age as a negative thing, senile (loss of mental capabilities due to old age) is also derived from senex
  • Definition: Noun. a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution government by such a group.
  • Word Origin:
    • Greek
    • Oligarkhia = government by the few
    • Oligoi = few, small, little
    • Arkheim = to rule
  • Sentence:
    • The ruling oligarchy of military men around the president kept him safe.