Clark County Training DivisionTechnical Rescue Training Developed by VFD Adapted by CCTD
RESCUE . T.R.T. Clark County Training DivisionWater Rescue Awareness
Water Rescue AwarenessObjectives At the completion of this course the student should be able to: • Identify the role of awareness level personnel. • Identify the primary priorities of technical rescue training instructors. • Identify skills and techniques used in water rescue from low to high risk options. • Identify the five components of size-up.
Water Rescue AwarenessObjectives Continued... • Perform a risk/benefit analysis. • Perform a hazard assessment. • Identify the need for additional resources based on the scene size-up. • Implement a scene management system. • Identify surface water search techniques. • Identify swiftwater hydrology and dynamics. • Determine whether a scene requires a rescue or a recovery.
Water Rescue AwarenessObjectives Continued... • Identify department equipment used in water and rope rescue
Role of Awareness Level Personnel As of November 1998 the National Fire protection Association (NFPA) has adopted a rescue standard that addresses water rescue as one of its components It is referred to as: NFPA 1670 Standard for Technical Rescue
Role of Awareness Level Personnel Continued…NFPA 1670 Overview The NFPA 1670 Standard should encompass nearly all of a department or agencies rescue capabilities. The intent of this standard is to establish general guidelines for the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) in assessing hazards, identifying levels of operational capabilities, and establishing training documentation and response guidelines. The rescue disciplines are: • Water rescue • Rope rescue • Confined space rescue • Trench rescue • Building collapse rescue • Wilderness search and rescue • Vehicles and Machinery Rescue • Other rescue operations requiring specialized training
Role of Awareness Level Personnel Continued…NFPA 1670 Overview Role Of Functional Capability NFPA 1670 identifies three levels of functional capability for technical rescue. The three levels are: • AWARENESS -At the Awareness level the responder has the necessary knowledge to recognize and identify a problem and understand the hazards associated with a technical rescue situation. The responder will make an assessment of the situation, attempt to isolate the problem, and know how to summon assistance. Actions taken by responders at the awareness level are defensive in nature and generally should pose low or no risk to the responder. Responders at this level are generally not considered rescuers.
Role of Awareness Level Personnel Continued…NFPA 1670 Overview Role Of Functional Capability • OPERATIONS - At the Operations level a responder has the skills, abilities, and knowledge of the Awareness level, and the added capacity to take limited action utilizing basic, common skills, and tools. The responder at the Operations level can make a higher level of risk assessment than at the Awareness level and take actions to stabilize the technical rescue situation and to assist technician level responders prepare for and complete rescue tasks. Actions taken at the Operations level are generally of a limited offensive nature and generally at low to moderate risk to the responder.
Role of Awareness Level Personnel Continued…NFPA 1670 Overview Role Of Functional Capability • TECHNICIAN - At the Technician level a responder has the skills, abilities, and knowledge of the Awareness and Operations level, and the added capacity to take positive action with specialized tools, skills, and knowledge. Responders at the Technician level can make a higher level of risk assessment than at the Operations level. Actions taken at the Technician level are generally offensive in nature and may pose a greater risk to the responder.
Role of Awareness Level Personnel The Awareness level instruction contains minimal skill components. Students will perform in a minimal capacity as rescuers. The course is designed to develop “knowledge” competencies within the areas of: • Rescue philosophy • River/flood dynamics and hydrology • Hazard recognition and mitigation procedures • Safety: self rescue - positioning - survival - panic • Scene assessment and incident size-up • Activation procedures for water rescue response • Equipment • Low risk rescue operations • Site control and scene management
Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training Instructors • The old training axiom: “those who can, do. Those who can’t, teach” must be buried. • Rescue instructors should always be teaching state-of -the-art techniques • Instructors must continually research and develop improved material form all resources • Active involvement is the first key to being a competent instructor • Instructors shall ensure technical rescue services and training are provided in a safe, effective and efficient manner... That is our goal!
Successful rescues are a mixture of four things: Training Practice Experience Judgment TRT Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training and Response
Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training and Response Continued... All rescues should be performed within the following rescue priorities: • SELF - Your first priority is to your own safety. Your ability to stay out of trouble and to self rescue if necessary
Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training and Response Continued... • TEAM - Your second priority is to your team. The safety of the team should be assured before proceeding with any operation.
Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training and Response Continued... • VICTIM - Third priority, only after ensuring the safety of yourself and the team, should you attempt to rescue the victim.self-sacrifice in rescue services is traditional and commendable… and a useless waste. Rescue instructors would rather appear as expert witnesses to testify why nothing was done, than as to why a rescuer was injured or died.
Primary Priorities of Technical Rescue Training and Response Continued... • FINALY - utilize the lowest risk rescue methods first, while setting up higher risk rescue methods as next alternatives
The Rescue Triangle TrainingEquipment Capabilities
Order of The Four Main Priorities That Must Be Met To Successfully Perform A Rescue L-A-S-T L = Locate The Victim A = Access The Victim S = Stabilize The Victim T = Transport The Victim
Low to High Risk Rescue Options • TALK • REACH • THROW • ROW • GO and TOW • OTHER OPTIONS
TALK Awareness/Operation Level Skill It is often possible to talk a victim through a self rescue. This is especially true if the victim has some form of flotation Low to High Risk Rescue Options
REACH Awareness/Operation Level Skill A rescuer can reach a victim with a flotation device, pike pole or anything you have on hand. If a victim is capable of grabbing something it is better to use an object so the victim can’t grab you directly. Low to High Risk Rescue Options
THROW Awareness/Operation Level Skill Usually refers to a throw bag or flotation device, This skill requires practice. If your victim is in moving water you may only get one shot at a moving target Low to High Risk Rescue Options
ROW Technician Level Skill Refers to a boat rescue. The risk involved in a boat rescue depends on the conditions present, the boat available, and the skills of the boat operator Low to High Risk Rescue Options
Refers to in the water contact rescues. This is relatively high risk. About 30% of all drownings each year are attempted rescues. Go & Tow Slack Water = Operations/Technician Skill Swift Water = Technician Level Skill VFD TRT Low to High Risk Rescue Options
Other Options Technician Level Skill Can include technical rescue systems, shallow water crossings, and even helicopter operations. Low to High Risk Rescue Options
Facts Probabilities Own Situation Decisions Plan of Operation Should be used in developing your Think - Plan - Act Model The Five Components of Size-Up
The Five Components of Size-Up Continued... FACTS WHAT IS HAPPENING ? • Time of Day • Day of Week • Number of Victims • The Victims Situation,Access, Egress • Past Site History • Water Flow • And Other Known Facts Knowing the facts will help the rescuer identify the next component
The Five Components of Size-Up Continued... PROBABILITIES WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN IF NOTHING IS DONE ? • Determining the probable course of events allows the rescuer to make decisions about safety, resource needs and rescue methods
The Five Components of Size-Up Continued... OWN SITUATION WHAT OPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE WITH EXISTING RESOURCES ? • Should not be confused with the FACTS component. Your own situation may be adequate for a simple victim assisted rescue but overwhelmed with multiple victims. When determining your own situation, consider: • Resources on hand • Your physical safety • What other resources are available and how timely • What training level do on site personnel posses
The Five Components of Size-Up Continued... DECISIONS CHOSE AN OPTION ? • Controllable with on-site resources • Request additional resources • Situation is a recovery - slow down the operation Remember that initial decisions and subsequent decisions will directly relate to the outcome of the overall incident success. ALSO Remember that size-up is on-going for the duration of the incident and this information will mold the decision making process.
The Five Components of Size-Up Continued... Plan of Operation HOW DO WE IMPLEMENT THE OPTION ? • Decisions can only be made by identifying the overall incident problems - THINK • Valid plans can only be executed using sound decisions - PLAN • Decisions determine actions - ACT • New information regarding the facts, probabilities, your own situation, results of previous decisions or the failure of your initial plan may necessitate application of “PLAN B”, be prepared! • “Plan for the worst, hope for the best.”
Risk/Benefit Analysis A MEASURE OF THE PROS VERSUS THE CONS • Is the risk to the rescuers worth the likelihood of a successful rescue. • Is the anticipated rescue within the scope of the on scene personnel. • Requires an honest look at on-scene personnel and equipment. • Many rescuer fatalities are directly caused by a failure of the IC to realize that on-scene personnel were in “over their heads”. • Performing a live rescue should never overshadow the basic goal of having all rescuers go home well and healthy.
Hazard Assessment ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE ALL HAZARDS THATMAY EFFECT THE INCIDENT • As an awareness level responder your job is to recognize the hazards, to avoid them, and to obtain the resources necessary to deal with them.
Hazard Assessment In The Water Rescue Environment UTILITIES • Electrical Power • Portable Generators • Natural Gas • LPG • Hydrocarbon Fuels/Oils
Hazard Assessment In The Water Rescue Environment HAZARDOUS MATERIALS • Too many to mention - But remember, as with any emergency incident, the site or area can provide many clues to the potential of Hazardous Materials. Look For: • Placards and labels • Container Shapes and design • Known Sites • Quantity and physical characteristics of material
Hazard Assessment In The Water Rescue Environment CONFINED SPACE • By definition many flood related water rescues can be evaluated as confined spaces because of the engulfment hazards of the associated water. • Many rescuers drowned after the Mexico City Earthquake due to broken sewer and water pipes filling the basements with water and debris.
ENVIRONMENTAL Are obvious but may be more difficult to avoid than any other hazards Rain Snow Flood Water Heat Cold Working and moving about the scene may become more hazardous as slips and falls become more frequent and equipment is much more difficult to handle. Care must be taken to provide adequate shelter, food and rest to the rescuers. Hazard Assessment In The Water Rescue Environment
Hazard Assessment In The Water Rescue Environment FLOWING WATER • Water flowing down a gradient is deceptively powerful. Only rescuers with a thorough understanding of moving water can appreciate the hazard involved. • When encountered it is usually best to take no action and call in resources with the expertise to mitigate the situation. • Numerous would-be rescuers drown every year because they fail to assess the hazards involved with moving water.
Rescue vs. Recovery • If the victim is visible are they in a stable situation, will they remain so? If submerged, for how long? It is usually better to give the victim a benefit of of the doubt in a submerging. • Do the on-scene resources have the training and equipment necessary? If not, as difficult as it may be, the rescue professional MUST wait for rescuers with appropriate level of training and equipment. • Can a reasonably safe rescue attempt be performed? • Is our response being driven by physical and emotional feelings and not education? There is a direct correlation between heightened emotions and rescuer fatalities. These guidelines are given for your consideration but there is no substitute for solid judgment on the part of the responder.
RIVER FLOW Water Rescue Site Management RIVER ORIENTATION RIVER LEFT-The left side of the river looking down stream. RIVER RIGHT- The right side of the river looking down stream. River Left River Right
RIVER COLD ZONE – Outside Hot and Warm Zones – Safe Area WARM ZONE – Within 10 feet of water or inside a rescue craft HOT ZONE In the water Water Rescue Site Management ZONES For the safety of all personnel working in or around the rescue incident the following ZONESshall be used to control entry
Hydrology and River Dynamics AWARENESS LEVEL DEFINITIONS • Eddy -Horizontal reversal of water flow where the pressure of current along an obstacle (such as a rock) causes the water behind the obstacle to reverse flow up stream. • Point Last Seen (PLS) -The point where the victim fell in the water or where they floated from site. The actual location where the victim was last seen. The PLS determines the point at which there will be no searching upstream. • Probability Of Detection (POD) - A location where locating the victim is highly likely due to natural or man-made choke points in the current, such as strainers or large eddys.
Hydrology and River Dynamics AWARENESS LEVEL DEFINITIONS • River Right -The right side of the river looking down stream • River Left -The left side of the river looking down stream • Strainer -Buildup of debris such as rocks and logs which restrict downstream flow. Dangerous due to underwater currents/undertows which may cause entrapment and drowning.
HYDROLOGY and RIVER DYNAMICS FLOW A B Deep (fast) C Shallow (slow) D F E A….. Downstream “V” B….. Constriction C….. Rock Fence D….. Feeder Stream E….. Eddy F….. Confluence ….. Eddy
Map Showing HIGH PROBABILITY OF DETECTION LOCATIONS FLOW HIGH POD HIGH POD HIGH POD
Self-Rescue and Personal Safety SWIMMING POSITIONS • Although moving water entry by Awareness level personnel is to be avoided,Awareness level personnel should have an understanding of what to do in the event they are suddenly thrown into the current. They must understand the swimming positions and under what conditions each should be used. They Are: • Basic or Defensive Swimming • Offensive or Aggressive Swimming
Self-Rescue and Personal Safety SWIMMING POSITIONS continued… • Basic or Defensive Swimming Position Once in the current: • Swimmer should roll onto the back. • Both feet pointing down stream. • Heals should be kept slightly lower than the buttocks. As they contact rocks, swimmers can flatten out to slide over shallow rocks or use feet to fend themselves off. • Use hands to control direction.
Self-Rescue and Personal Safety SWIMMING POSITIONS continued… • Offensive or Aggressive Swimming Position Once in the current the defensive swimming position may not be adequate to propel a swimmer to a safe area, then an offensive stance must be undertaken. • Swimmer rolls onto belly. • Swims hard, using free style or crawl stroke while kicking hard with feet.
Self-Rescue and Personal Safety Foot Entrapments • In floods and swiftwater, victims and rescuers can become entrapped or vertically pinned. • The possibility exists in any stream, river or channel. • The victim or rescuer puts their feet down and the force of the water pushes their feet or bodies into rocks or debris piles. • The force of the water pushes the victim over downstream. • Only the most fortunate are capable of holding their heads up until help arrives.