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Plants and Environmental Toxicity. “The dose makes the poison” Range of growth inhibition varies with plant species – some more susceptible and others more tolerant. http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/image_full/international/photosvideos/photos/the-river-in-midland-now-has-a.jpg.

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plants and environmental toxicity
Plants and Environmental Toxicity

“The dose makes the poison”

Range of growth inhibition varies with plant species – some more susceptible and others more tolerant

http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/image_full/international/photosvideos/photos/the-river-in-midland-now-has-a.jpg

what are toxic environments
What are toxic environments?

http://dcm2.enr.state.nc.us/ims/wetlands/salt_marsh.jpg

Salt Marsh

http://laser.cs.umass.edu:8000/~jcobleig/CrossCountry1/GreatSaltDesert.jpg

Great Salt Desert between Salt Lake City and Reno Nevada

what are toxic environments3
What are toxic environments?

http://forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu/smp/photos/ltsp_bc_calcareous_l.jpg

Calcareous soil in British Columbia

http://www.nor.com.au/environment/clarencecatchment/images/soil3.jpgAcidic granite soil in Australia

what are toxic environments4
What are toxic environments?

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~ippolito/biosolids/byers/4.jpg

Application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Colorado

http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/pubs/Core_Slides/images/slide006.jpg

Lead and copper smelter El Paso

what are toxic environments5
What are toxic environments?

http://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/digital.img/2000/P6290030.jpg

http://www1.crcsalinity.com/spa/photos.htm

Puccinellia growing in waterlogged conditions in Australia

what are toxic environments air pollution
What are toxic environments?Air Pollution

SO2 (sulfur dioxide)

NOx (nitrogen oxides)

CO

CO2

O3 (ozone)

Hydrocarbons

Ethylene

http://www.transsib.ru/Photo/Vsib/5349.jpg

Paper mill in Romania

acid rain
Acid Rain

http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dar/ood/acidrain.gif

http://www.wwf.it/summit/images/19061_germany%20Acid%20rain.jpg

Acid rain damaged forest in Germany

what are toxic environments oxidative damage
What are toxic environments?Oxidative Damage

H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)

O2- (superoxide)

what are the influences of toxins on plants inhibits acquisition of resources water
What are the influences of toxins on plants?-inhibits acquisition of resources - water

Water uptake is inhibited as

Soil solutes increase

Compensate by synthesizing compensating

Solutes in roots and leaves

http://www.naturfoton.se/flora/flora/previous/Chenopodiaceae/Suaeda-maritima-2.jpg

Suaeda maritima

Annual Sea Blight – halophyte (salt-tolerant plant)

what are the influences of toxins on plants inhibits acquisition of resources carbon energy
What are the influences of toxins on plants?-inhibits acquisition of resources – carbon/energy

http://www.cbesurvey.org/aplv/panek/ozone.htm

Ozone impacts woody species by increasing stomatal resistance and decreasing photosynthesis

what are the influences of toxins on plants inhibits utilization of resources
What are the influences of toxins on plants?-inhibits utilization of resources
  • Inhibition of enzyme activity
  • Inhibition of cell division
  • Wasteful use of resources

http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wheatpests.html

Salt stress in wheat

Plant roots produce ethanol

under conditions of O2

deficit (waterlogged soils)

resistance to toxicity avoidance
Resistance to ToxicityAvoidance
  • Phenology – grow when stress is less
  • Timing – Limonium vulgare (Common Sea Lavender) –seeds germinates best when treated with sea water followed by fresh water

http://www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/biologie/pb/kulakbiocampus/images/r/

resistance to toxicity avoidance alter soil ph
Resistance to ToxicityAvoidance – alter soil pH

If plant takes up cations (NH4+), soil solution becomes more acid

If plant takes up anions (NO3-), soil solution becomes more basic

So, under conditions of mineral toxicity (e.g. Al+3), plants will favor NO3- uptake

resistance to toxicity avoidance14
Resistance to ToxicityAvoidance

http://www.uri.edu/artsci/bio/plant_anatomy/26.html

http://www.ars.usda.gov/images/docs/7647_7841/2005-X-PlantRoot.jpg

Eastern Gama grass aerenchyma transports O2 to the roots from the shoot when plants are flooded

resistance to toxicity avoidance exclusion
Resistance to ToxicityAvoidance - exclusion

Presence of Al+3 in soil solution

opens anion channels

that export malate (anion)

into rhizosphere – forms

aluminum complex

http://www.plantstress.com/Articles/toxicity_m/Tolerance_files/image010.jpg

resistance to toxicity localization
Resistance to ToxicityLocalization

Toxic minerals (Al, Cd) are accumulated in root vacuoles by halophytes to prevent dehydration of the cytoplasm, non-reactive solutes (amino acid proline) are synthesized

http://www.biologie.uni-regensburg.de/Botanik/Schoenfelder/

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum

resistance to toxicity excretion
Resistance to Toxicity - Excretion

http://online-media.uni-marburg.de/biologie/nutzpflanzen/bilder/vb/chenopodium_quinoa.jpg

http://plantpath.unl.edu/llane/text/saltglands.htmlChenopodium quinoa salt glands

tolerance
Tolerance

Indigenous vegetation

http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/image-display.php

Great Dyke of Zimbabwe – exposed rock formation rich in platinum and chromium with distinctive vegetation not found elsewhere

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/

phytoremediation
Phytoremediation
  • Can plants be used to clean up contaminated soils?
  • Succesful phytoremediation systems need plants that:
  • Can survive on contaminated soil
  • Can absorb toxins into roots
  • Can transport toxins to shoots for harvest and removal
  • Have a high growth rate for high efficiency clean-up

http://www.wits.ac.za/museums/herbarium/students/sanwil.htm

Berkheya coddii –hyperaccumulator of nickel

phytoremediation20
Phytoremediation

http://www.landw.uni-halle.de/lfak/inst/iap/stockbuch/brsenf.jpg

Brassica juncea – Cd and Au (gold) accumulator)