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Master in Health Economics and Policy Ethics and Health (April 10-June 19, 2012). Marc Le Menestrel marc.lemenestrel@upf.edu Raquel Gallego raquel.gallego@uab.cat. Session 4: Policy making: Problem definition and power. What is a problem? What sort of ideas become problems?

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master in health economics and policy ethics and health april 10 june 19 2012

Master in Health Economics and PolicyEthics and Health(April 10-June 19, 2012)

Marc Le Menestrel

marc.lemenestrel@upf.edu

Raquel Gallego

raquel.gallego@uab.cat

session 4 policy making problem definition and power
Session 4: Policy making: Problem definition and power.
    • What is a problem? What sort of ideas become problems?
    • What is power? Who is powerful?

Essay: What is a problem from a policy analysis perspective?

Give an example.

Required reading:

  • Dery, D. 1984. Problem Definition in Policy Analysis, University Press of Kansas, Ch.2-3, pp.14-36. [PDF]

Optional reading:

  • Dowing, K 1996. Power. Buckingham: Open University Press
  • Loseke, D.R. 2003. Thinking about social problems. London: Aldine Transaction.
policy cycle
Policycycle

Problem Agenda- Decision- Implementation

DefinitionSettingMaking

Epistèmic

Conflicts

Simbolic

dimension

Style

Dimension

Interaction

models

Fundamental

choice

SubstantiveDimension

Management

scenarios

OperationalDimension

Source: AdaptedfromGomàand Subirats, 1998

problem definition i
Problemdefinition (I)

“Wheretobuild a highway?”

Bettertoaskhowtodesign a consultation and negotiationproceduretohelp decide wheretobuildit.

(Do weneed a highway?...)

problem definition ii
Problemdefinition(II)

Problem:Substantialdiscrepancybetweenwhatitis and whatitshould be:

  • (+) doesnotidentifyproblemwithinsatisfactorysituation
  • (+) there’s no problemwherethere’s no insatisfaction
  • (+) there’s no insatisfactionwherethere’s no aspirationforimprovement
  • (-) desiredstatemaynot be attainable
  • (-) ifdesiredstateistaken as constant, onlypresentconditionsmay be manipulated
problem definition iii
Problemdefinition (III)
  • Differentsolutionsassumedifferentproblems:
    • It’simportanttochoosetherightobjective
    • Choosingthewrongobjectiveinvolvessolvingthewrongproblem
    • Chooingbetweendifferentobjectivesinvolveschoosingbetweendifferentproblems
problem definition iv
Problemdefinition(IV)
  • Analyticalconstruct
    • Problemvs objectivesituation
    • Who defines a situation as a problem?
    • Whoseproblemdefinitionwillprevail?
  • Qualifiedrelativism:
    • Instrumental solution
    • Interventionistperspective
    • Improvement
problem definition v
Problemdefinition (V)
  • Problem=situation=causes
    • Causalitychain?
  • Defining a problem:
    • Identifying a discrepancythat can be overcome (betweenwhatitisand whatitshould be)
    • Identifyingthemap/trajectorytogofromwhatitistowhatitshould be
    • Conceivablesolution: net benefit in relationtotheprevioussituation
problem definition vi
Problemdefinition(VI)
  • Problem= opportunityof improvement
  • Criteriaforchoosingbetweenalternatives
    • Net benefit
    • Pareto, Kaldor& Hicks
    • Technological and politicalviability
the role of analysis
The role of analysis
  • “Expert” definitionvs “democratic” definition of problems
  • Limitations of “scientific/expert” analysis
  • Ideologicalanalysis
actors and power i
Actorsand power(I)
  • Politics: collectiveactivitythatpursuestheregulation and management of social conflictthroughbindingdecisions(componentof compulsionorimposition => idea of power)
  • Power: capacitytointervene in thisactivity
  • Question:whogetswhat, when, how and why?
    • Pluralistapproach
    • Elitistapproach
actors and power ii
Actors and power (II)
  • Thecapacitytosuccessfullynegotiatedependsonthe use of yourresources:
    • Expertknowledge
    • Information
    • Legitimateautority (legal, expertise, knowledge)
    • (Un)conditional incentives
    • Reputation
  • Context, preferences, resources and stances of alies and opponents.
actors and power iii
Actors and power (III)
  • Power: “gettingwhatyouwant” vs “gettingwhatyouwantevenagainstothers’ preferences”
  • Luck: probability of gettingwhatyouwantwithouttrying
  • Success: probability of gettingwhatyouwantifyou try.
  • Luck+ Beingdecisive = Success
  • Luck= Success – Beingdecisive
actors and power iv
Actors and power(IV)

Luck

FortunateUnfortunate

Success

Successful1 2

Unsuccessful3 4

actors and power v
Actors and power(V)
  • Some are systemicallylucky: theygetwhattheywantwithouttryingbecause of howsocietyisstructured.
  • Whilepowerisbasedonthe use of specific social resourcesfornegotiation, luckisbased in the social position of individualsorgroups.
  • Exemple: thecapital’ssystemicluck(Przeworski -’Thevalley of transition’).