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Ecology. Ecology. Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment. All life is found in a thin band that surrounds the planet called the Biosphere .

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Ecology1
Ecology

Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment.



Ecology

The biosphere extends from a few called the meters in the soil, to a few kilometers into the air.


The biosphere
The Biosphere called the

Biosphere is made of biotic factors (living)


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and abiotic factors called the

(non living)


Biomes
Biomes called the

The biosphere is broken up into regions based on climate, & the resulting organisms.


Biomes1

Biomes called the


Tundra
Tundra called the


Taiga
Taiga called the


Temperate forests
Temperate Forests called the


Desert
Desert called the


Grasslands
Grasslands called the



Ecosystems
Ecosystems called the

The ecosystems are regions inside biomes that have the same climate.

Ecosystems in different areas of Earth may have different organisms.


Communities
Communities called the

Are all the living things that are found in an ecosystem.

A forest community would have trees, deer, birds, bacteria, etc


Population
Population called the

All the creatures that are found in the same area and have the potential to reproduce together is considered a population

Deer pop., tick pop., Pine tree pop.


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biosphere called the

ecosystem

community

population

individual of a species


Niche and habitat
Niche and Habitat called the

  • In the ecosystem, each species has a niche and a habitat.

  • The habitat is where it lives, e.g. top of tree, open ocean, grasslands


Habitat and niche
Habitat and Niche called the

An organism’s niche is what it does in that habitat (its lifestyle)

e.g. eats a specific type of seed on a bush, hunts a specific prey


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Food webs
Food Webs there will be competition, and all but one species will ultimately die off.

The main relationship between organisms is based on energy

Organisms are placed into levels based on how they get their energy.


Trophic levels
Trophic Levels there will be competition, and all but one species will ultimately die off.

The levels that organisms are placed into are called trophic levels (feeding levels).

Producers- organisms that convert sunlight into chemical energy (glucose)


Trophic levels1
Trophic Levels there will be competition, and all but one species will ultimately die off.

Consumers- organisms that must eat other things for energy

Herbivores- (primary consumers) eats only plants or producers


Trophic levels2
Trophic Levels there will be competition, and all but one species will ultimately die off.

Carnivores- (secondary consumers) eats only other consumers

Ominvores- eats both producers and consumers


Trophic levels3
Trophic Levels there will be competition, and all but one species will ultimately die off.

Decomposers- breaks down large molecules into smaller ones to be reused by producers.

E.g. bacteria and fungi


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Algae chain.

minnow

trout

hawk



Energy pyramids
Energy Pyramids ecosystem is a food web.

  • Organisms are unable to utilize all the energy they consume.

  • Much of the energy is lost as heat.


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Energy pyramid
Energy Pyramid animals at the next trophic level.


Biomass
Biomass animals at the next trophic level.

Because of the loss of energy at each trophic level, there is usually a larger mass of living tissue at the lower levels than at the upper levels.


Biomass pyramid
BioMass Pyramid animals at the next trophic level.

Secondary Carnivore

Primary carnivore

Herbivores

Producers


Nutrient cycles
Nutrient Cycles animals at the next trophic level.

  • Energy is not the only thing moved from one organism to another.

  • Nutrients (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, water) are also cycled through the ecosystem


Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle animals at the next trophic level.

  • Nitrogen gas (N2) is naturally found in the atmosphere.

  • N2 is unusable to most living things.


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Carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle trapped is changed back into nitrates or nitrogen gas by decomposing bacteria.

  • Carbon is found in the atmosphere as Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

  • CO2 is used by plants during photosynthesis to build carbohydrates.


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  • Animals eat carbohydrates for energy trapped is changed back into nitrates or nitrogen gas by decomposing bacteria.

  • During cellular respiration, the carbohydrates are changed into ATP and CO2.

  • The organism must then release the CO2 back into the atmosphere.


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Symbiosis
Symbiosis fossil fuel (coal or oil).

Symbiosis is a relationship between any two living things.

There are four main types of relationships.



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Population ecology
Population Ecology does not attempt to kill the host)

The relationships between populations have an effect on their size and success.

There are many factors that help to determine the size of a population


Population change
Population Change does not attempt to kill the host)

There are two things that cause the population to grow:

Births and immigration (individuals entering the population from another population)


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Two things cause the population to decline: does not attempt to kill the host)

Death and emigration (individuals leaving the population)


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Under ideal conditions, a population will grow at an exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

Exponential Growth Curve


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In natural conditions, exponential grown does not last long. exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

Limiting factors will control how large a population can grow.


Limiting factors
Limiting Factors exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

Limiting factors come in two forms

  • Density-dependent

  • Density- independent


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  • Density-dependent exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

    The larger the population, the greater the effect. (food, water, space, disease, mates, predators)


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  • Density-independent exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

    Population size has no effect (natural disaster, climate, temperature)


Carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

If a population has sufficient resources, it will grow at an exponential rate.

There will be many births and few deaths


Carrying capacity1
Carrying Capacity exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows

Eventually the population reaches the limit the environment can support. Limiting factors cause more deaths (starvation, disease, malnutrition)


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The natural limit the environment can support is called the carrying capacity.

Logistical Growth Curve



Human population
Human Population rate is equal to the death rate.

Currently, the human population is growing at an exponential rate.


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With more people on the planet, we require more resources to keep us alive and produce more waste with our activities.


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Most ecological problems are caused by human activities. keep us alive and produce more waste with our activities.

Habitat destruction, pollution, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and endangered species