Ecology. Ecology. Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment. All life is found in a thin band that surrounds the planet called the Biosphere .
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Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment.
All life is found in a thin band that surrounds the planet called the Biosphere.
The biosphere extends from a few called the meters in the soil, to a few kilometers into the air.
Biosphere is made of biotic factors (living)
and abiotic factors called the
The biosphere is broken up into regions based on climate, & the resulting organisms.
The ecosystems are regions inside biomes that have the same climate.
Ecosystems in different areas of Earth may have different organisms.
Are all the living things that are found in an ecosystem.
A forest community would have trees, deer, birds, bacteria, etc
All the creatures that are found in the same area and have the potential to reproduce together is considered a population
Deer pop., tick pop., Pine tree pop.
biosphere called the
individual of a species
An organism’s niche is what it does in that habitat (its lifestyle)
e.g. eats a specific type of seed on a bush, hunts a specific prey
The main relationship between organisms is based on energy
Organisms are placed into levels based on how they get their energy.
The levels that organisms are placed into are called trophic levels (feeding levels).
Producers- organisms that convert sunlight into chemical energy (glucose)
Consumers- organisms that must eat other things for energy
Herbivores- (primary consumers) eats only plants or producers
Carnivores- (secondary consumers) eats only other consumers
Ominvores- eats both producers and consumers
Decomposers- breaks down large molecules into smaller ones to be reused by producers.
E.g. bacteria and fungi
The combination of all the possible food chains in an ecosystem is a food web.
Because of the loss of energy at each trophic level, there is usually a larger mass of living tissue at the lower levels than at the upper levels.
Symbiosis is a relationship between any two living things.
There are four main types of relationships.
3. Parasitism- one benefits, the other is hurt (parasite does not attempt to kill the host)
4. Predation- one consumes all or part of the other organism does not attempt to kill the host)
The relationships between populations have an effect on their size and success.
There are many factors that help to determine the size of a population
There are two things that cause the population to grow:
Births and immigration (individuals entering the population from another population)
Two things cause the population to decline: does not attempt to kill the host)
Death and emigration (individuals leaving the population)
Under ideal conditions, a population will grow at an exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows
Exponential Growth Curve
In natural conditions, exponential grown does not last long. exponential rate, the larger it gets, the faster it grows
Limiting factors will control how large a population can grow.
Limiting factors come in two forms
The larger the population, the greater the effect. (food, water, space, disease, mates, predators)
Population size has no effect (natural disaster, climate, temperature)
If a population has sufficient resources, it will grow at an exponential rate.
There will be many births and few deaths
Eventually the population reaches the limit the environment can support. Limiting factors cause more deaths (starvation, disease, malnutrition)
The natural limit the environment can support is called the carrying capacity.
Logistical Growth Curve
When a population reaches the carrying capacity, the birth rate is equal to the death rate.
Currently, the human population is growing at an exponential rate.
With more people on the planet, we require more resources to keep us alive and produce more waste with our activities.
Most ecological problems are caused by human activities. keep us alive and produce more waste with our activities.
Habitat destruction, pollution, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and endangered species