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25 Industrial Park Road, Middletown, CT 06457-1520 · (860) 632-1485. ctserc.org. Determining the Level of Support for IEP Development. Sequence of Content. p. 31. This Afternoon. p. 32. Outcomes.

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sequence of content
Sequence of Content

p. 31

This Afternoon

SERC

outcomes

p. 32

Outcomes
  • Use decision-making values that are the “least dangerous assumptions” (Donnellan, 1984) and provide instructional supports that are “only as specialized as necessary” (Giangreco, 2001)
  • Determine the specially designed instruction that alters general education setting demands or curriculum standards
  • Select high quality accommodations and modifications based on a continuum
essential questions

p. 32

Essential Questions
  • What is an appropriate level of support for an individual student with disabilities?
  • How are decisions made regarding the use of accommodations and modifications?
decision making principles

p. 33

Decision-Making Principles

“Only-as-Specialized-as-Necessary”

    • Use general education supports as the first option
    • Provide additional supports only as needed to provide access and progress
  • “Least Dangerous Assumption”
    • “In the absence of absolute evidence, it is essential to make the assumption that, if proven to be false, would be least harmful to the individual”

(Giangreco, 2001).

(Donnellan, 1984).

SERC

special education

p. 33

Special Education

“The term `special education' means specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability…”

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, § 602(29), 20 U.S.C. §1401.

SERC

specially designed instruction

p. 33

Specially Designed Instruction
  • “Adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child…, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction:
    • To address the uniqueneeds of the child that result from the child's disability; and
    • To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.”

Regulations: Part 300 / A / 300.39 / b / 3

SERC

the first option for access
The First Option for Access

Access in school is ensured if the general education class with support is the FIRST option considered by the PPT, regardless of disability type or severity

the continuum of support

p. 33

The Continuum of Support
  • General Education “as designed”
  • With Supplemental Instruction
  • With Accommodations
  • With Modifications

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the General Curriculum: Including Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press, Inc.

Stetson, F. (2002). Step by Step Training for Inclusive Schools. Houston, Texas: Stetson and Associates.

SERC

supplemental instruction1

p. 34

Supplemental Instruction
  • Direct, explicit, intense instruction that is needed to address
    • Missing Skills or Concepts
    • Needed Learning Strategies
    • Behavior Concerns

SERC

supplemental instruction2

p. 34

Supplemental Instruction
  • Content Mastery
    • Critical content required in the core curriculum
  • Strategy Instruction
    • Key learning, behavioral, social strategies
  • Skill Development
    • Essential skills/application of skills
  • Replacement/Alternative Behaviors
    • Substitution of less appropriate with more appropriate behaviors (socially acceptable)

Strategic Instruction Model: Content Literacy Continuum: Leveraging Research to Promote School-wide Literacy in Secondary Schools. (2005). Center for Research on Learning University of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: Joseph R. Pearson Hall.

accommodations vs modifications

p. 35

Accommodations vs. Modifications

Accommodation

  • A change made to the instruction or assessment procedures to provide a student with full access to learning (HOW)
  • Do not change the content, or performance expectations for meeting standards

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the General Curriculum: Including Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press, Inc.

Stetson, F. (2002). Step by Step Training for Inclusive Schools. Houston, Texas: Stetson and Associates.

SERC

three types of accommodations

p. 35

Three Types of Accommodations
  • Alternative Acquisition Modes
    • Ways of acquiring knowledge (Input)
  • Content Enhancements
    • Ways to process content, such as organization, comprehension, and memorization (Process)
  • Alternative Response Modes
    • Ways of demonstrating learning (Output)

Nolet, V. & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000).

what is the difference
What is the Difference?
  • The difference between an accommodation and effective instructional practices comes down to what a student must have to be able to learn.
  • For example…
    • The use of graphic organizers is a highly effective strategy for all students and should be used in instruction daily
    • However, this student must have a graphic organizer as a result of having needs in the area of recall.
accommodations vs modifications1

p. 35

Accommodations vs. Modifications

Modification

  • A change in the skills, concepts or performance expectations (WHAT)
  • While it may be modified, the topic and content remains the same

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the General Curriculum: Including Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press, Inc.

Stetson, F. (2002). Step by Step Training for Inclusive Schools. Houston, Texas: Stetson and Associates.

SERC

two types of modifications

p. 35

Two Types of Modifications
  • Change in the number of concepts/skills or performance expectations within the grade level standard (fewer or more)
  • Change of level of performance standard (benchmark) (lower or higher)

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the General Curriculum: Including Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press, Inc.

SERC

something to seriously consider
Something to Seriously Consider…
  • Modifications that lessen content or lower performance standards automatically decrease the likelihood of a student meeting goal on CMT/CAPT.
  • We should always have the conversation as to how we will move from the use of a modification to teaching the full content.
let s give it a try
Let’s Give it a Try!

Use the pre-test in your packet and identify each of the items as an accommodation or modification…

accommodation or modification
Accommodation or Modification?

Color code important words or phrases

GeorgeWashington was the firstpresident of the United States

Accommodation

accommodation or modification1
Accommodation or Modification?

Read mathematical word problems aloud to a student

Accommodation

accommodation or modification2
Accommodation or Modification?

A student retrieves 2 pictures from the Internet related to the essential elements of a World History topic. He demonstrates understanding by naming and pointing to the correct picture when cued by his peers during a presentation

Modification

accommodation or modification3
Accommodation or Modification?

Allow a student to complete a project as an alternative to a test

It Depends

accommodation or modification4
Accommodation or Modification?

A student is learning the concepts of part, whole and half; her peers are working on adding fractions

Modification

accommodation or modification5
Accommodation or Modification?

Provide audiotapes, CDs or MP3s of textbooks and have the student follow the text while listening

Accommodation, except…

accommodation or modification6
Accommodation or Modification?

A student is working on elapsed time through creating and using a schedule of his daily activities, while his classmates work on multi-step word problems with elapsed time

Accommodation, as long as…

accommodation or modification7
Accommodation or Modification?

Graphic organizers such as semantic webs or concept maps

Accommodation

accommodation or modification8
Accommodation or Modification?

Reduce the number of Math problems from 25 to 10

Accommodation, as long as…

accommodation or modification9
Accommodation or Modification?

Provide alternative books with similar concepts, but at an easier reading level

Accommodation, as long as…

accommodation or modification10
Accommodation or Modification?

A student is required to discriminate between animals and plants when given pictures and short descriptions, while the rest of the class is required to tell the distinguishing characteristics of animal and plant cells

Modification

accommodation or modification11
Accommodation or Modification?

Provide a designated note taker or photocopy the notes of a classmate (use carbonless paper)

Accommodation

review the iep word bank

p. 36

Review the IEP/Word Bank
  • “As designed”
  • With Supplemental Instruction
  • With Accommodations
  • With Modifications
  • Stetson, F. (2002)
can you adjust
Can You Adjust?
  • Are there areas that are really general education? (not needing additional support)
  • Is there sufficient supplemental instruction to address the gap?
  • Are there accommodations that can prevent the use of modifications?
examining impact

p. 37

Evidence of High Impact on Learning

High Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Independence

Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning

No Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Dependence

Examining Impact
verbal repetition of vocabulary supplemental instruction

Evidence of High Impact on Learning

High Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Independence

Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning

No Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Dependence

Verbal repetition of vocabulary (supplemental instruction)
alphasmart assistive technology instruction supplemental instruction

Evidence of High Impact on Learning

High Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Independence

Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning

No Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Dependence

AlphaSmart Assistive Technology Instruction (Supplemental Instruction)
picture communication board accommodation

Evidence of High Impact on Learning

High Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Independence

Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning

No Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Dependence

Picture Communication Board (accommodation)
frequent checks for understanding accommodation

Evidence of High Impact on Learning

High Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Independence

Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning

No Access to General Education Curriculum

Fosters Dependence

Frequent Checks for Understanding (accommodation)
you try

p. 41

You Try
  • Of the potential supplemental instruction, accommodations and modifications you listed, which ones will have the greatest impact on…?
    • Learning
    • Access to general curriculum
    • Independence
integration with universal practice

p. 42

Most Like Peers

Enriches Other’s Learning

Seen as “Cool”

Easy to Put into the Routine

Least Like Peers

Deters Other’s

Learning

Seen as “Uncool”

Difficult to Put into the Routine

Integration with Universal Practice
picture communication board

Most Like Peers

Enriches Other’s Learning

Seen as “Cool”

Easy to Put into the Routine

Least Like Peers

Deters Other’s

Learning

Seen as “Uncool”

Difficult to Put into the Routine

Picture Communication Board
frequent check for understanding

Most Like Peers

Enriches Other’s Learning

Seen as “Cool”

Easy to Put into the Routine

Least Like Peers

Deters Other’s

Learning

Seen as “Uncool”

Difficult to Put into the Routine

Frequent Check for Understanding
you try1

p. 45

You Try
  • Of the potential accommodations/modifications you selected, which ones will …?
    • Be most like peers
    • Will enrich others learning
    • Is seen as cool
    • Be easy to put into a routine
  • What changes would need to happen to move them into the green zone?