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Strengthening Students’ Literacy and Learning through Reading Apprenticeship ® World History Summer Institute Chapter 2 Reading For Understanding. Dimensions of Reading Apprenticeship. Creating a community of learners.

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Strengthening Students’ Literacy and Learning through Reading Apprenticeship®World History Summer Institute

creating a community of learners
Creating a community of learners
  • Think of a time when you were in a learning situation in community that went very well for you. What would it take to make today’s workshop that kind of successful learning environment for you?
personal reading history
Personal Reading History

“ When students reflect on and share their personal reading histories, they have an opportunity to view themselves and their classmates more generously, as ‘readers in progress,’ with reader identities they can understand and change”

(Schoenbach, Greenleaf and Murphy 79).


write about some key moments or events in your development as a reader in your discipline
Write about some key moments or events in your development as a reader in your discipline.
  • What experiences stand out for you? High points? Low points?
  • Were there times when your reading experience or the materials you were reading made you feel like an insider? Like an outsider?
  • What supported your literacy development in this subject area? What discouraged it?
personal reading history1
Personal Reading History
  • Share some highlights of your reading history with a partner. Make sure that each of you has had an opportunity to read or tell your story uninterrupted before you respond to what you’ve heard.
  • Once both people have had a chance to share, discuss what you’ve learned about each other: what were some commonalities? What were some surprises?
personal reading history2
Personal Reading History
  • What did you learn about yourself as a reader? About your partner?
  • What supported your reading development?
  • What discouraged it?
  • What are some commonalities? Surprises?
classroom application
Classroom Application
  • What are some possible benefits and/or drawbacks of doing a Personal Reading History with your students?
  • How might you modify this Personal Reading History activity to fit your classroom?


primary sources in world history
Primary Sources in World History

Professor John Allen


reading apprenticeship
Reading Apprenticeship
  • A partnership of expertise between the teacher and students, drawing on what content area teachers know and do as skilled discipline-based readers and on learners’ unique and often underestimated strengths
wested s strategic literacy initiative sli
WestEd’sStrategic Literacy Initiative (SLI)
  • A professional development and research organization focusing on improving academic literacy in diverse populations of adolescents and post-secondary students using Reading Apprenticeship, a research-based instructional framework.

Reading Apprenticeship

Professional Development activities mirror

classroom application

capturing your reading process
Capturing your Reading Process
  • Thinking about your thinking while reading
  • Engages students and teachers in a metacognitive conversation about
  • how we read
  • Key professional development and classroom strategy


capturing your reading process1
Capturing your Reading Process
  • Read the text silently as you normally would when you want to understand something. (Marx, Capital)
  • You’ll have about five minutes to read, and we’ll do a short writing piece afterward.
  • Please reread if you finish early.
capturing your reading process2
Capturing your Reading Process
  • What strategies did you use to make sense of the text?
  • What got in the way of your reading?
  • What, if any, comprehension problems did you solve?
  • Which, if any, problems still remain?
small group discussion opening a window into our thinking
Small group discussion: opening a window into our thinking
  • What did I do?
  • Where did I do it?
  • How did that affect my reading and understanding?


reading strategies list
Reading Strategies List
  • A living document that helps the class engage in metacognitive conversations about what we do to problem solve as we read.


reflect reading process analysis
Reflect Reading Process Analysis
  • What did you notice about your or someone else’s reading that is new or surprising?
  • What are some of the benefits and challenges of doing RPA with your students?
  • What modifications would you make?
  • How can you begin a metacognitive conversation with students about their own literacy experiences?


think aloud
Think Aloud

A direct route into metacognitive conversation

case study assignment
Case Study Assignment
  • Study of WWII Japanese internment
  • U.S. Constitution
  • Supreme Court Decision on Korematsu
think aloud1
Think Aloud
  • Helps students to notice and say when they are confused, and use each other as resources for making meaning
  • Helps you to practice making your thinking visible, so you can model effective ways of reading texts in your discipline for students
  • Helps to give names to the cognitive strategies that we use to comprehend text
  • Helps to notice text structures and how we navigate various genres to build confidence, range, and stamina
pairs try think aloud
Pairs Try Think Aloud
  • As one person reads and thinks aloud, the partner annotates on the text
  • After each chunk, discuss the meaning and agree on a summary sentence
  • Then switch roles thinking aloud and annotating the text.
reflect on think aloud
Reflect on Think Aloud
  • What did you notice about your own or your partner’s thinking and reading?
  • What did you notice about the demands of this text?
  • What do you have to know in order to make sense of this text?
problem solving made visible
Problem Solving made Visible

Through Think Aloud, we begin to problem-solve using cognitive strategies that we name and talk explicitly about—routine

metacognitive conversations.


schema demands
Schema Demands
  • What is challenging about this text?
  • What do we have to draw upon in order to make sense of it?
  • What did you notice about the difference between reading alone and reading with a partner?


classroom case inquiry
Classroom Case Inquiry
  • Observe how one teacher supports disciplinary, rigorous thinking and reading in her class
  • Inquire how Reading Apprenticeship can be embedded into a content class
  • We won’t be evaluating the lesson or coaching the teacher
read the context
Read the Context
  • Scan the subheadings and find one section you want to read carefully
  • Look at the lesson at a glance”


  • What do you notice about the way Gayle organizes her class and her long-term goals?


evidence interpretation

Observations must be grounded in Evidence!


viewing focus
Viewing Focus
  • 1’s: What do you notice about the students’ reading and talk about reading?
  • 2’s What do you notice about the supports for students’ talking and reading?


pair share
Pair Share
  • Keep your discussion based on the evidence of what you saw students and teacher doing
  • Focus on the disciplinary ways of thinking (historical) the students are learning to practice


whole group reflection
Whole Group Reflection
  • What does the teacher say?
  • What can you take-away from this inquiry?
  • How can you apply what you learned in your classroom?


talking to the text
Talking to the Text

This strategy is basically a think aloud on paper. It differs from think aloud in two key ways:

  • the individual reflection on the reading process is written, not spoken
  • the metacognitive conversation is delayed until after the individual reading and reflecting
pair discussion
Pair Discussion
  • What were did you do as you read?
  • What reading strategies did you use?
  • What schema (knowledge) did you bring to the text?
group share
Group Share
  • What did you notice about your partner’s thinking?
  • Did you learn something you would not have thought of on your own?
  • What similarities and differences did you notice between you and your partner?
  • What kind of knowledge did you or your partner bring to the text?
reflect on talking to the text
Reflect on Talking to the Text
  • How did it feel to Talk to the Text?
  • What similarities and differences did you notice about Thinking Aloud and Talking to the Text?
  • What might be some of the benefits and burdens of engaging students in Talking to the Text in your own classes?


metacognitive logs
Metacognitive Logs

“Metacognitivelogs can help students become more aware of their thinking as readers and give them more control over how well they learn. The logs can be a place for students to document their reading experiences in preparation for sharing and problem solving in the whole class community”

toussaint louverture
Toussaint Louverture
  • Take a few minutes to read the text and use the note taker
share your notes in groups
Share your notes in groups
  • Notice similarities and differences
  • What are of the benefits and burdens of using these note takers
  • What modifications might you make?
whole group share out
Whole Group Share Out
  • What similarities and differences did you notice in your note taking?
  • Benefits and burdens?
  • How might you use this technique in your classroom?
  • How can you use this activity to foster a metacognitive conversation with students?
try it out
Try it out !
  • As you listen to the content talks today, experiment with the Metacognitive Reading Logs in your packets
the building blocks of meaning making
The building blocks of meaning making
  • When students connect to past learning, they are able to build new knowledge
  • Surfacing what we need to know in order to make sense of a text can help us lead our students to independent learning


surface schema with hocked gems
Surface Schema with “Hocked Gems”
  • Read “Hocked Gems” silently and Talk to the Text, paying special attention to what you know and how you think you know it.
  • If you think you understand it, please DO NOT give away the answer!



What do you know that helped you make sense of the text and what in the text sparked you to think of it?

  • How did you learn that?


four areas of knowledge
Four Areas of Knowledge
  • World/ Personal: Schema from your lived day to day experience
  • Text: Schema about how different text forms and genres are structured
  • Discipline: Schema learned as a result of school; specialized knowledge
  • Language: Schema about how words are built and fit with other words


reflect on schema
Reflect on Schema
  • How can we activate students’ existing schema?
  • How can we make our schema available to them?
  • What schema do students need to engage with YOUR course text(s)?



Corandicis an emurientgrof with many fribs; it granks from corite, an olg which cargslike lange. Coritegrinkles several other tarances, which garkersexcarp by glarcking the corite and starping it in tranker-clarpedstorbs. The tarancesstarp a chark which is expargedwith worters, branking a slorp. This slorp is garped through several other corusces, finally frasting a, pragety, blickantcrankle: coranda. Corandais a cargurt, grinklingcorandic and borigen. The corandicis nacerated from the borigen by means of loracity. Thus garkers finally thrap a glick, bracht, glupousgrapanrt, corandic, which granks in many starps.



1. What is corandic?

2.What does corandicgrank from?

3. How do garkersexcarp the tarances from the corite?

4.What is coranda?

5. How is the corandicnacerated from the borigen?

6. What do the garkersfinally thrap?


text and task analysis
Text and Task Analysis
  • We want you to be able to apply all of this in a practical way, to see how RA might influence your lesson planning.
  • If you happen to have a current course text with you, pull it out. Otherwise, choose one of the texts in your packet.


think aloud 6 min
Think Aloud (6 min)
  • One partner Thinks Aloud while the other partner takes notes.
  • Switch rolls after 3 minutes .
  • Afterwards, you will discuss the kinds of schema the readers drew upon and the kinds of reading strategies s/he employed.


discuss and analyze
Discuss and Analyze
  • Use the Text and Task Analysis note taker in binder
  • What kind schema is needed for understanding?
  • What teaching strategies might you use to facilitate understanding?


group share1
Group Share
  • What Ah-ha’s did you experience?
  • Roadblocks?
  • How can you plan to build on what students already know?
  • How can you scaffold what they don’t know and need to know?


reflection on schema
Reflection on Schema
  • Students need to connect new knowledge to existing knowledge
  • Build on Strengths: Helping students understand (surface) what they already know can be a big confidence builder
  • It’s important to begin with accessible texts so students can practice what they know and think about how they know it


for tomorrow
For Tomorrow
  • Bring a text you will teach in the fall
  • You may work with others if you wish!
  • Bring any materials you will need to begin planning a lesson or unit
  • Laptop
  • Templates (if you use them)
  • Text sets/text books


  • Course Planning with Reading Apprenticeship
  • Wrap up
our goals with reading apprenticeship
Our Goals with Reading Apprenticeship:
  • Help students learn to read and think like insiders (experts) in a subject area
  • Overcome our own expert blind spot – blending subject-area knowledge with important understandings of how novices acquire the conventions, rituals, and expectations of discourse in that field
more goals
More Goals
  • Help students gain insight into their own reading processes
  • Help students develop a repertoire of problem solving strategies for overcoming obstacles and deepening comprehension of texts from various academic disciplines
in reading apprenticeship classrooms teachers
In Reading Apprenticeship Classrooms, Teachers
  • Focus on comprehension and metacognitive conversation
  • Create a climate of collaboration
  • Provide appropriate support while emphasizing student independence
in a reading apprenticeship classroom one will notice
In a Reading Apprenticeship Classroom, one will notice:
  • The teacher briefly modeling to make his or her thinking visible
  • The students engaging in guided practice of what the teacher has modeled
  • Students talking with one another about their experiences with the reading

Make some notes about how our activities have addressed the “dimensions of Reading Apprenticeship” over the last two days (see pg 1) .

Social, Personal, Cognitive,

Knowledge Building, Metacognitive


small groups discussion
Small Groups discussion
  • How might these activities work (or not) in your classroom?
  • How might you change the activities?
whole group share
Whole Group Share
  • What routines did we experiment with and where do they fit in the framework?
  • What can we do in our classrooms? What seems most important and how can you bring that to your students?
classroom planning
Classroom Planning
  • Work alone or with others to plan a lesson or unit.
  • Use a text, or texts that you plan to teach in the fall
want to know more about ra
Want to know more about RA?
  • Reading for Understanding by Schoenbach et al (Amazon)
  • August 7-9 in Oakland: 3 day workshop for secondary teachers of all subjects
  • You can arrange for workshops at your campus

Contact: Kate Meissert:

Strategic Literacy Initiative, WestEd

i welcome your feedback
I welcome your feedback!

Shawn Frederking (

English Instructor/ Instructional Associate: Language Arts, Yuba College

Community College Reading Apprenticeship Consultant, Strategic Literacy Initiative, WestEd

ra helps to develop more powerful readers
RA helps to develop more powerful readers
  • Engaging students in more reading– for recreation, subject-area learning, and self-challenge
  • Making the teacher’s discipline-based reading processes visible to the students;
  • Making students’ reading processes, motivations, strategies, knowledge, and understanding visible to the teacher and to one another;