I have written my work not as an essay with which to win the applause of the moment but as a possession for all time. -Thucydides Peloponnesian War Rebekah Thomas EDCI 270
Students: • 7th-8th Grade • Attend a typical World History class • Advanced 6th Grade class • Anyone interested in Ancient Greece
Learning Environment: • Students will be in class • Each student will have his own computer, paper, pencil, and headphones • Teacher will assist students if needed; otherwise students will work through the lesson on their own
Objectives: • Upon completion of this module on the Peloponnesian War, students will be able to identify: • Certain important dates • Notable persons • Major battles. • Students will participate in a quiz about the material and will answer with no less than 80% accuracy.
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First Stage 431-421 B.C. Second Stage 421-412 B.C. Introduction 2. Peloponnesian War 3. 1. Third Stage 412-404 B.C. 4. (Click on a picture to start) Practice Quiz Quiz
Introduction An Overview of the major characters from the Peloponnesian War:
Introduction The Peloponnesian War started in 431 B.C. when a Spartan ally attacked an Athenian ally. Both sides responded with a declaration of war.
Introduction This war lasted 27 years.
Introduction Alcibiades was an Athenian general. During the war he betrayed his city and joined forces with Sparta.
Introduction Alcibiades was forgiven by the Athenian assembly and he returned to Athens in 407 B.C. He was assassinated three years later.
Introduction Brasidas was a Spartan general. He died in 422 B.C. in the final battle against Athenswhile leading his troops to victory.
Introduction Pericles was the most famous Athenian politician at this time. He was Athens’ main leader for the first three years of the war.
Introduction He is most known for his work overseeing the construction of the Parthenon, which has remained a national monument for over 2,000 years.
Introduction Pericles died of a plague in 429 B.C. at the age of 65.
Introduction Cleon was an Athenian statesman who disagreed with Pericles’ war strategy. Cleon wanted to obliterate all enemies of Athens.
Introduction Cleon died in the Battle of Amphipolis, where Brasidas was killed as well.
Introduction Nicias was another Athenian politician during the war. He was a staunch rival of Cleon’s, since he wanted to conclude a peace with Sparta quickly.
Introduction Nicias was appointed as a military general, and was captured in Syracuseby the Spartans and executed in 413 B.C.
Introduction The Athenian general Lamachus was a member of the Sicilian Expedition in 421 B.C.
Introduction Mindarus was a popular Spartan commander. He was killed in the Battle of Cyzius while fighting against Alcibiades.
Introduction Gylippus was the Spartan general responsible for capturing Nicias. He also defeated over 5,000 men from the Athenian army stationed in Sicily.
Introduction Another Spartan general, Lysander, defeated the Athenians at the Battle of Aegospotami. This victory greatly weakened Athens and ultimately led to their defeat in the Peloponnesian War.
Introduction A contemporary of the time, Thucydides wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War, which contains much of the information we have about the war.
Terms to Remember: • Peloponnesian War • Alcibiades • Brasidas • Pericles • Cleon • Nicias • Syracuse • Lamachus • Mindarus • Gylippus • Lysander • Thucydides • 431 B.C. • 429 B.C. • Battle of Amphipolis • Sicilian Expedition • Battle of Cyzius • Battle of Aegospotami • History of the Peloponnesian War
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Archidamian War The Peloponnesian War is divided into three stages. The Archidamian War is the first stage, and lasted from 431-421 B.C.
Archidamian War This stage was named after the Spartan king Archidamus. He was opposed to the war against Athens from the very beginning.
Archidamian War The war started because the city-state of Athens was seen as a threat to Greece’s democracy.
Archidamian War Pericles, the main leader in Athens, wanted to build a stronger and more glorious city. This caused many rival cities to view the actions of Athens as signs of aggression.
Archidamian War Athens started to force their territories into submission, and by the spring of 431 B.C. Sparta decided to intervene.
Archidamian War Several months were spent in negotiations between Athens and Sparta. But when Sparta’s ally Thebes attacked an Athenian ally, war broke out.
Archidamian War Spartaformed the Peloponnesian League with its allies. Its strategy was to gather a large army and directly attack Athens as well as the surrounding area of Attica.
Archidamian War Athens gathered allies and formed the Delian League. Athens’ strategy was to stay behind their city walls and wait for Sparta to give up.
Archidamian War These plans produced a stalemate. For two years no side made any significant progress. So Sparta switched plans.
Archidamian War Sparta tried attacking Athens by sea, but was thwarted every time by Athens’ superior navy.
Archidamian War Sparta was taking major losses. It seemed that Athens would win the war. But in 429 B.C. a plague spread through Athens, killing its leader Pericles.
Archidamian War In 428 B.C. several cities within Athens’ territory revolted. Athens responded with military force.
Archidamian War But even while fighting multiple battles across thousands of miles, Athens was still militarily more powerful than Sparta.
Archidamian War In 425 B.C. Brasidas attempted to provoke further rebellions against Athens. He also captured the strategic Athenian colony of Amphipolis.
Archidamian War In 422 B.C. Athens attempted to recapture Amphipolis. This battle resulted in the deaths of Cleon and Brasidas, both great military leaders from each side.
Archidamian War Battered and weary, both sides were eager for some kind of peace. This resulted in a treaty known as the Peace of Nicias.
Archidamian War Technically, Athens won the Archidamian War, although losses were very great.
Archidamian War Athens had been humiliated and was ready to prove it was still a power to be reckoned with. It wouldn’t be long before the chance came.
Terms to Remember: • Archidamian War • Archidamus • Peloponnesian League • Attica • Delian League • Peace of Nicias • 431-421 B.C. • 429 B.C. • 422 B.C.
Think About It: Do you think it was fair for Athens to demand all of Greece be under their rule? Was it right for Sparta to intervene? What would you have done if you were the leader of Sparta? (Write your answer in essay form.)
Archidamian War You finished this section! -Return to the Main Menu to continue with the lesson
The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition The second stage of the Peloponnesian War is also referred to as the Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, which lasted from 421-412 B.C .
The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition In the spring of 421 B.C., Athens and Sparta signed a 50 year peace treaty. The politician Nicias was a major advocate of this treaty.
The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition Within three years this treaty was broken.