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In the Name of the Most High . New Trends in Network Management. Need for new management technologies. Since late ’80s Networks have evolved Management needs have changed Management technologies have evolved

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need for new management technologies
Need for new management technologies
  • Since late ’80s
    • Networks have evolved
    • Management needs have changed
    • Management technologies have evolved
  • Mismatch in speed of evolution of networks and management requirements vis a vis management technology
evolution of networks
Evolution of networks
  • In the mid-late ’80s
    • Devices simple, resource constrained
    • Capabilities were limited
  • Today
    • Increased functional complexity
    • Increased complexity in configuration
    • Increased intelligence and programmability of devices
    • Networks that provide a wide range of services
    • NGNs: Packet based networks for all services
    • Providing unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers for services of their choice
changes in operator needs
Changes in operator needs
  • Management of large backbone networks requires powerful configuration management
  • Move from device management approach to system management
  • Service centric view of network
    • VoIP (residential and business), multimedia streaming, IP TV, fast data connectivity, triple play
  • Increased speed of service delivery
    • Automation of business processes
consequences for management
Consequences for management
  • Rethinking management principles – integration of independent developments
  • Management support for delivering quality service
  • Changes resulting from “user” focus as opposed to “network” focus
  • Importance of developing standardized management software for easy maintenance and extensibility
traditional approaches datacomm
Traditional approaches - Datacomm
  • SNMP based
  • Aim was to have simple small footprint protocol
  • Kept self contained and independent of other network services
  • Catered to fault, performance monitoring, simple configuration management
  • Soon after release, shortcomings were exposed
key revisions in snmp v2 v3
Key revisions in SNMP v2, v3
  • Revised OBJECT definitions
    • counter64 type
  • Improved tables
    • unambiguous row selection
    • procedures for creation and deletion of rows
    • augmenting of tables
  • Notification definition
  • Manager-manager communication
  • SNMP v3 - Security
drawbacks of snmp
Drawbacks of SNMP
  • Inadequate information modeling – simple data structures and protocol operations
  • Object based rather than object oriented
  • No inheritance – so no information re-use
  • Inadequate primitive for bulk information retrieval
  • UDP transport restricts size of data that can be sent
  • Limited configuration management support
  • Low level semantics
configuration management needs
Configuration management needs
  • Need to apply configuration changes to several network devices simultaneously
  • Download bulk configuration changes on many devices
  • Schedule configuration operations on devices at particular times
  • Roll back support
  • Co-ordinated activation of downloaded configurations
overcoming snmp shortcomings
Overcoming SNMP shortcomings
  • Evolutionary efforts were made to address shortcomings
    • Improving SMI
    • Improving SNMP protocol
    • Enhancing configuration management capability
evolutionary efforts i
Evolutionary efforts - I
  • Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and Network Management Research Group (NMRG) developed SMIng
    • Allows arbitrarily nested data structures
    • Facilitates re-usability of complex data structures
    • Extensible mechanisms
  • IETF was to develop a standards track for above in 2000
    • Phase 1: requirements drawn up
    • Phase 2: 2 strong proposals emerged
  • Efforts to merge these failed, in 2003, group was wound up
evolutionary efforts ii
Evolutionary efforts - II
  • Attempt to improve protocol shortcomings
  • Efforts to reduce overhead due to OID redundancy
    • Compression
    • Suppression of redundant OID fragments
    • Effect bulk transfer at MIB level instead of OID
  • Use of TCP as transport protocol
  • Did not meet with success because of industry reluctance to accept new technology
evolutionary efforts iii
Evolutionary efforts - III
  • COPS PR for improving Configuration Management capability
  • Resource Allocation Protocol (RAP) –WG for policy based configuration and provisioning
  • Specification language: Structure of Policy Provisioning Information (SPPI)
  • TCP is transport protocol
  • Intends to make configuration changes based on PBMS
selecting a management technology
Selecting a management technology
  • Information model
    • Defines how the management information is represented, data structures, objects etc. Eg., SNMP/UDP/IP is management protocol and SMI for definition of data
  • Communication model
    • Defines protocol for exchange of management information, structure of PDU, protocol operations
    • Specifies how units of management information can be addressed
  • Organizational model
    • Actors, roles and principles of co-operation whether manager-agent, management by delegation, mobile agents, policy based etc.
selecting a management technology1
Selecting a management technology
  • Efficiency and timeliness
  • Simplicity
  • Cost of development and maintenance
  • Maturity
  • Security
  • Overhead on managed equipment (CPU, memory footprint etc.)
  • Bandwidth overhead
alternative management approaches
Alternative management approaches
  • Web based management
    • embedded web server in device
    • Browser can connect to to the URL of the device and html pages with management information
    • Provides graphical displays of management information
    • Improved configuration facility, detailed device management
  • Drawbacks
    • More an EMS-like approach – no end to end view
    • High level management functions such as map based view, root cause analysis, trend analysis not supported
web based snmp
Web based & SNMP
  • Devices have an embedded web server as well as SNMP agent (dual interface)
  • Combines the advantages of both approaches
    • Manager agent paradigm
    • Efficient Fault and Performance monitoring capability offered by SNMP
    • Detailed configuration
    • Map based end-to-end view
desktop management interface

MIF DataBase

Desktop Management Interface

Desktop Resident

Management Applications

Management Interface (MI)

Service Layer (SL)


Component Interface (CI)

Hardware/Software Components

MIF: Management Information Format

desktop management interface dmi
Desktop Management Interface (DMI)
  • Industry standard generated by
    • - Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF)
  • Started in 1992 to manage PCs
  • Manages both hardware and software
  • Two standards
    • Management information format (MIF), similar to MIB
    • Program interface with two APIs
dmi service layer

Component Interface

DMI Service Layer



MIF Access

Management Interface


Synchronization and Flow Control

MIF Install









MIF Processing

dmi mib
  • MIF specified using ASN.1 syntax
  • Can be managed by an SNMP manager
  • DMTF task expanded to specify WBEM - Web-based enterprise management
  • DMTF
    • - Distributed Management Task Force
web based enterprise management1
Web-Based Enterprise Management
  • WBEM based on Common Information Module
  • CIM is information-modeling framework intended to accommodate all protocols and frameworks
  • Object-oriented
  • Five components:
    • Web client
    • CIM object manager (CIMOM)
    • CIM schema
    • Management protocol
    • Managed objects with specific protocol
microsoft wmi1
Microsoft WMI
  • WMI is Microsoft infrastructure to support WBEM CIM
  • WMI comprises management infrastructure, applications, and agents
  • CIMOM has plug-in management applications
  • COM/DCOM API specifies interface to CIMOM
  • CIM is the CIM schema
  • Object providers are management agents (e.g. SNMP agent)
new management technologies
New Management Technologies
  • TeleManagement Forum(TMF) Interfaces
    • MTNM
      • NML-EMS interface based on CORBA
    • MTOSI
      • OS-OS interface based on XML