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Inclusive practices (Unit 303: supporting learning). Inclusion was. Mental Deficiency Act 1913. Idiots Imbeciles Feeble-minded Moral defectiveness Blind Deaf Epileptic Physical defective. What is inclusion?. What is support?. What are the barriers to learning?.

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mental deficiency act 1913

Inclusion was...

Mental Deficiency Act 1913
  • Idiots
  • Imbeciles
  • Feeble-minded
  • Moral defectiveness
  • Blind
  • Deaf
  • Epileptic
  • Physical defective

What is inclusion?

What is support?

What are the barriers to learning?

What resources do we need?

inclusion is
Inclusion is….
  • SEN, inc. physical disabilities and emotional, social and / or behavioural difficulties
  • EAL (Pupils with English as an Additional Language)
  • LAC (Children who are Looked After)
  • G & T (Gifted and Talented)
  • Pastoral (bereavement, transition, behaviour, self-esteem, attendance etc.)
  • Gender
  • MEG (Minority Ethnic Groups), inc. travellers, asylum seekers and refugees
  • other children, such as sick children; young carers; children from families under stress; children who are at risk of disaffection and exclusion from school; children from families of extreme poverty
key legislation
Key Legislation

Warnock Report 1978 (suggested getting rid of labels-Handicapped, towards individualised learning)

Education Act 1870(ed for all)

Education Act 1981 (advocated integration and greater collaboration)

Special Education Needs Code of Practice for Wales 2002 ( Graduated Response)

Education Act 1944 (compulsory)

Education Reform Act 1988 (entitlement for all children – broad balanced curriculum-NC)

Key Legislation


SENDA 2001

(DDA 1995 Part 4)

Children Act 1989(children with disabilities are children first)

Education Act 1993 CoP 1994 (staged referral – to statementing)

The Learning Country A Paving Documents 2001

DDA 1995

Shaping the Future for Special Education An Action Programme for Wales 1999

Education Act 1996

(legal entitlement for parents to express wish)

Green Paper 1997 (increase inclusion –contribution LSAs)

the disability discrimination act 2002
The Disability Discrimination Act 2002

‘This DDA Act requires settings/schools not to treat a disabled child ‘less favourably’ and to make ‘reasonable adjustments’

In practice this means to:

  • Eliminate discrimination and promote positive attitudes
  • Promote equal opportunities
  • Improve access to the curriculum
  • Make physical improvements
  • Provide information in a range of formats
  • Take specific action for children whose first language is not English
  • Ensure that children are provided with material that is appropriate to their ability
disability discrimination
Disability Discrimination

‘It is unlawful for schools to discriminate against disabled pupils for a reason relating to their disability, without justification’.

Disability Discrimination Act 1995

feelings associated with


at ease










hard done by


Feelings associated with:

Creating inclusive cultures:

  • Building an inclusive community
  • Establishing inclusive values
  • Producing inclusive policies
  • Developing the school for all
  • Organising support for diversity
  • Evolving inclusive practices:
  • Orchestrating learning
  • Mobilising learning

Developing inclusive practices


I know the vulnerabilities of all learners I work with.

I assess and track my learners continuously.

I proactively develop my practice.

I monitor and evaluate impact; analysing data.

I identify the right provision for all learners.

I use evidence to evaluate and develop the quality of provisions.

  • Igniting possibility in all of our learners.

Inclusive teaching: provision mapping


Classroom Organisation

Observation / Monitoring / Marking

Broad and balanced curriculum, inc. intervention strategies

Target Setting



Learning &


Liaison with family


Teaching & Behaviour Management


Learning Opportunity

Use expertise through liaison with outside agencies and experts in school

differentiation by
Differentiation by…
  • Differentiated and/or different objectives
  • Content / task
  • Interest
  • Pace
  • Level
  • Access / resources
  • Response
  • Depth / sequence
  • Structure
  • Support
  • Teaching style
  • Grouping

Which of these do you overuse?


Can you give an example where you differentiated well? How did you know?


Pre-requisite cognitive skills for success in core curriculum areas

  • Complex shape discrimination
  • Shape location within close parameters
  • Minimal Difference Visual Discrimination
  • Auditory Discrimination
  • Auditory Sequential Memory

Left to right visual pattern sequencing

  • Fine motor skills for pencil writing or keyboard
  • Translating 3D to 2D, 2D to 3D
  • Short term memory
  • Time sequencing
  • Sentence/ auditory comprehension of 1+ Information Carrying Words
ieps should
IEPS should …
  • only record that which is “additional to” or “different from” the educational provision made generally for children of their age in schools maintained by the LA, other than special schools, in their area
  • not be “more literacy” or “more maths” but be interventions which address the underlying learning needs of the pupil in order to improve his or her access to the curriculum.
  • state what the learner is going to learn – not what the teacher is going to teach (ie state the outcome – be clear about what the pupil should be able to do at the end of the given period).

be accessible to all those involved in their implementation – pupils should have an understanding and “ownership of the targets”

  • be seen as working documents
  • be manageable and easily monitored
  • be based on informed assessment
  • Be time-limited – there should be an agreed “where to next …” – not necessarily another IEP

Being specific (eg):

  • To behave more appropriately in class

To be able to sit at his table without interrupting the teacher during group sessions on at least 3 days of the week

  • To be able to play with others appropriately

To consistently be able to take his turn when playing a board game with 1 or 2 of his peers

  • To improve her self-esteem

To be able to choose a piece of work she has done during the week that she is proud of and tell a friend the reasons for choosing it.

where do iep targets come from
Where do IEP targets come from?
  • Discussion between teacher and teaching assistants
  • Discussion with pupil
  • Discussion with another professional
  • Discussion with parents
other general strategies
Other General Strategies
  • Support with spelling / writing independently (Makaton/ Colourful Semantics)
  • Support with reading (Makaton, Jolly Phonics)
  • Peer support
  • Practical experiences
  • Alternative forms of recording, including ICT
  • Worksheets
  • Appropriate forms of assessment
  • Modes of communication
  • Age-appropriate resources
  • Use of games
  • Using TAs effectively
  • Effectively using IEPs

Which of these strategies do you already use to support pupils with SEN?

what factors influence learning
What factors influence learning?





Think of what you think would be an ideal learning environment – blue skies thinking!

Role of support assistant/ teacher

What about the actual task? How should it be presented?

What about the child ? They must be ready to learn, feeling valued and confident in themselves and in the support they will get

Learning Environment