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The diencephalon
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The diencephalon

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  1. The diencephalon 间 脑

  2. I. Position • Lies between midbrian and cerebrum大脑 • almost entirely surrounded by cerebral hemisphere 大脑半球

  3. Doral thalamus Epithalamus hypothalamic sulcus Hypothalamus II.Subdivision 1. Dorsal thalamus 背侧丘脑 2. Epithalamus 上丘脑 3. Hypothalamus 下丘脑 4.Metathalamus 后丘脑 5. Subthalamus 底丘脑:

  4. Medial geniculate body 内侧膝状体 Metathalamus 后丘脑 lateral geniculate body外侧膝状体

  5. Subthalamus 底丘脑: transition zone between the thalamus and tegmentum of midbrain, contain subthalamic nucleus底丘脑核,

  6. Epithalamus 上丘脑: includes thalamic medullary stria 丘脑髓纹, habenular trigone缰三角, habenular Commissure 缰连合, pineal body松果体 posterior commissure 后连合

  7. anterior nuclei medial nuclei lateral nuclei by internal medullary lamina 内髓板 Dorsal thalamus • A large egg-shaped nucleus mass. anterior thalamic tubercle 丘脑前结节, pulvinar 丘脑枕 • division

  8. Dorsal nuclei Ventral posterolateral nucleus 腹后外侧核 Ventral posterior nucleus 腹后核 Ventral posteromedial nucleus 腹后内侧核 internal medullary lamina 内髓板 Med. nuclear group Ant. nuclear group 丘脑前核 Pulvinar 枕 Ventral anterior nucleus 腹前核 Ventral lateral nucleus 腹外侧核

  9. Functional subdivision • According to the function, the thalamus may be divided into the three groups Nonspecific relay nuclei 非特异性中继核 Association nuclei联络性核群 Special relay nuclei 特异性中继核

  10. Intralaminar nuclei Midline nucleus group Thalamic reticular nucleus • Nonspecific relay nuclei 非特异性中继核 a) Midline nucleus group 中线核群 b) Intralaminar nuclear group 板内核群 c) Thalamic reticular nucleus丘脑网状核 Receive afferent fibers from rhinencephalon嗅脑and reticular formation of brain stem, project mainly to cerebral cortex 大脑皮质.

  11. Dorsal nuclei Functional subdivision • Association nuclei联络性核群 a)Anterior nuclear group 丘脑前核 b) Medial nuclear group 内侧核群 c) Dorsal nuclei of lateral nuclear group 外侧核的背侧组 Med. nuclear group Ant. nuclear group 丘脑前核

  12. dentate nucleus(齿状核), globus pallidus(苍白球) substantia nigra(黑质) Special relay nuclei特异性中继核 receiving the fibers from: Ventral anterior nucleus腹前核 Ventral lateral nucleus腹外侧核 motor cortex 运动区 Ventral anterior nucleus 腹前核 Ventral lateral nucleus腹外侧核

  13. trigeminal lemniscus and teste fibers medial lemniscus • spinal lemniscus Receives trigeminal lemniscus三叉丘系 teste fibers from solitory nucleus • Ventral Posterior nucleus 腹后核may be divided into Ventral Posteromedial nucleus 腹后内侧核: Ventral posterolateral nucleus 腹后外侧核 receives medial lemniscus and spinal lemniscus, Cerebral cortex send out fibers to the somatosensory area 躯体感觉中枢.

  14. Medial geniculate body (MGN) 内侧膝状体 Inferior colliculus Optic tract auditory area optic radiation visual area Metathalamus 后丘脑 Receive auditory fibers frombrachium ofinferior colliculus下丘臂. Projects to auditory area viaacoustic radiation听辐射 Lateralgeniculate body (LGN) 外侧膝状体 Receive fibers from optic tract 视束. Projects to visual area via optic radiation视辐射.

  15. Boundaries 1. Superiorly: hypothalamic sulcus 2. Inferiorly: optic chiasma, tuber cinereum灰结节, infundibulum 漏斗 mamillary body 乳头体 3. Anterior: lamina terminalis 终板 4. Posterior: continues with midbrain tegmentum Hypothalamus下丘脑 Position: lies ventral to thalamus

  16. Hypothalamus下丘脑 Subdivisions and important nuclei Preoptic region 视前区 Supraoptic region 视上区 a) Supraoptic nucleus 视上核: produce antidiuretic hormone 抗利尿激素(ADH, or vasopression 加压素) b) Paraventricular nucleus室旁核: produce oxytocin催产素。 Tuberal region 结节区 Infundibular nucleus 漏斗核 Mamillary region 乳头体区 Mamillary nucleus 乳头体核

  17. Supraoptic nucleus (vasopressin 加压素) • Connects with hypophysis垂体 Paraventricular nucleus Paraventriculohypophyseal tract 室旁垂体束 Supraopticohypophyseal tract 视上垂体束 (oxytocin 催产素) posterior lobe of hypophysis

  18. Infundibular nucleus 漏斗核 Median eminence • Connects with hypophysis垂体 Tuberoinfundibular tract 结节漏斗束 Function Regulates the function of neuroendocrine system and autonomic nervous System. (其分泌物调节垂体前叶的分泌) Portal v. anterior lobe Hypophyseal v.

  19. Interventricular foramen室间孔 mesencephalic aqueduct中脑水管 Third ventricle 第三脑室 • Position: a narrow cleft lies within diencephalon. • Communication • By the Interventricular foramen → lateral ventricle 侧脑室 • by mesencephalic aqueduct → fourth ventricle

  20. Lateralgeniculate body Medial geniculate body Metathalamus

  21. Paraventricular nucleus 室旁核 Supraoptic nucleus 视上核 Mamillary nucleus arcuate nucleus anterior lobe of hypophsis Paraventriculohypophyseal tract 室旁垂体束 Supraopticohypophyseal trac 视上垂体束 tuberoinfundibular tract 结节漏斗束 infundibulum posterior lobe of hypophysis

  22. habenular trigone 缰三角 Pineal body松果体 habenular Commissure 缰连合

  23. Hypothalamus --connection • Connects with limbic system 边缘系统 • Connects with brainstem and spinal cord • Connects with dorsal thalamus • Connects with hypophysis垂体 a) Supraoptic nucleus (vasopressin加压素) →supraopticohypophyseal trac →posterior lobe of hypophysis b) Paraventicular nucleus (oxytocin催产素) →paraventriculohypophyseal tract→posterior lobe of hypophysis c) Parvicellular neurons in the arcuate nucleus and nearby region of the walls of the third ventricle secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones → tuberoinfundibular tract →portal vein of hypophsis → anterior lobe of hypophsis

  24. Interventricular foramen Third ventricle 第三脑室 • Position: a narrow cleft lies within diencephalon. Boundaries Roof: choroids plexus 脉络丛 Floor: from ant. To post. optic chiasma 视交叉, tuber cinereum灰结节, infundibulum漏斗 mamillary body乳头体。 Anterior:lamina terminalis 终板 Posterior: continuous with mesencephalic aqueduct Lateral wall: dorsal thalamus and hypothalamus • Communication a. Interventricular foramen→lateral ventricle b.Third ventricle → mesencephalic aqueduct → fourth ventricle

  25. Tectum of midbrain Tegmentum of midbrain Cerebral peduncle Substantia nigra Crus cerebri