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Novell NetWare . CS363 11 February, 1999. NetWare 3.1x. NetWare Architecture Directory and File Structure Security Account Restrictions Trustee Assignments Inheritance File/Directory Attributes. NetWare 3.1x. Bindery Services Print Services Protocols IPX, SPX NCP SAP Utilities.

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novell netware

Novell NetWare

CS363

11 February, 1999

netware 3 1x
NetWare 3.1x
  • NetWare Architecture
  • Directory and File Structure
  • Security
    • Account Restrictions
    • Trustee Assignments
    • Inheritance
    • File/Directory Attributes
netware 3 1x3
NetWare 3.1x
  • Bindery Services
  • Print Services
  • Protocols
    • IPX, SPX
    • NCP
    • SAP
  • Utilities
architecture
Architecture
  • Core OS + Modules of functionality
    • four types of modules
      • .LAN - Network Interface drivers
      • .DSK - Hard disk controller drivers
      • .NAM - Name space drivers
      • .NLM - Enhancement Utilites
slide6
NLMs
  • LAN
    • NE2000.LAN
    • 3C5x9.LAN
  • DSK
    • IDE.DSK
    • AHA1520.DSK
  • NAM
    • MAC, OS/2, DOS(loaded by default)
slide7
NLMs
  • NLM
    • TTS - Transaction Tracking System
    • CDROM - allows for mounting of a CD
    • 3rd Party - ArcServe,FaxServe, BackupExec
search map
Search MAP
  • Search Maps will add themselves to the PATH variable.
  • It will either OVERWRITE the spot in the PATH (MAP S1:=)
  • Insert and push right existing (MAP INS S1:=)
  • Map S16:= will assign next avail search map, til 16, then overwrites
map command
MAP Command
  • ROOT - creates a fake root of the file system (great for applications and security)
    • MAP ROOT H:=SYS:\USERS\%LOGIN_NAME
    • H:=sys:\users\BillS
  • C - changes a Network map to a Search map (or vice versa)
    • MAP C Z:
    • Z: is now no longer a search map but is a regular map
  • NEXT - assigns the next available drive letter
map command20
MAP Command
  • If only one FS don’t need FS in command, if multiples, it’s a good idea
    • MAP drive:=FS\VOL:directory\directory
    • slash direction before the : is not important
    • after the colon goes by DOS conventions
access
Access
  • All access to the network (3 or 4) is based on the User Account
  • Without a valid account created by an admin there is virtually no access
file system security
File System Security
  • Basis is User Account
  • Trustee assignments determine Who can do
  • Rights determine What user can do
file system security24
File System Security
  • Default Assignments
    • User “Home” if created with NW utils
      • Most rights [RWCEMF]
    • Public [RF]
    • Mail [C] (this is where user login scripts are stored in 3.x)
rights
W (Write)

o

R (Read)

M (Modify)

F (File Scan)

A (Access Control)

C (Create)

E (Erase)

S (Superviory)

Changes contents

used to make a word

Open and Execute

Changes the Attribs

See the F or D in a list

Sets Trustees, IRF

Makes a new F or D

Deletes the F or D

All of the Above

Rights
fs security
FS Security
  • Gain Rights by
    • Trustee Assignment
    • Membership in a Group
    • Inheritance (rights flowing down)
  • Lose Rights by
    • New Trustee Assignment
    • Inheritance Rights Mask(3) or Filter(4)
plan rights
Plan Rights
  • Plan with least access at the root

to more access in the branches (user level)

login scripts
Login Scripts
  • Used to set the environment for Users
  • 3.x
    • System Login Script
    • User Login Script
    • Default (part of Login.EXE)
netware printing services
NetWare Printing Services
  • Currently everything is based on Queues
  • Printing Services must be ADDED (they are not part of the core OS)
  • PServer provides printing services to the network
  • NPrinter broadcasts the availability of a printer at Server - Rprinter at a WS.
utilities
Utilities
  • 3.x
    • User Account - SYSCON
      • Menu driven DOS utility
      • There is a new GUI version with 3.2
      • To make multiple user accounts use MAKEUSER
    • File System - FILER
      • Menu driven DOS utility
    • Print Services
      • PCONSOLE
netware 3 vs 4
NetWare 3 vs. 4
  • File System is pretty much the same
  • Database is the significant difference
    • 3 used Server Centric Bindery
    • 4 uses Global Distributed Database - NDS
  • Memory Management is improved in 4
  • Printing setup was simplified
user account
User Account
  • Basis of all network access
  • You can not access the network beyond looking without a valid account
  • Consists of UserName and Last Name
  • All access rights are part of the User object (NDS and File System)
netware file services
NetWare File Services
  • Part of the core OS
  • There are default directories created
    • Login,Mail,Etc,Public,System,Deleted.Sav
      • System created - Queues, Doc, DocView
  • FS Security is part of the FS and is separate from Directory Security, Login Security
access58
Access
  • All access to the network (3 or 4) is based on the User Account
  • Without a valid account created by an admin there is virtually no access(exception is [public] trustee in 4.x)
database information
Database Information
  • 3.x - All Resources associated with a server are stored in the Bindery
    • 3 Files make up the Bindery
      • NET$OBJ - List of objects
      • NET$PROP - List of properties assoc. to objects
      • NET$VAL - The values of the properties
  • 4.x - All Resources associated with the Network - stored in Novell Directory Service
databases
Databases
  • Bindery is Server centric (associated with a single server)
  • NDS is Enterprise based -includes all resources (not just network) of the corporation and is a global, distributed database. (more later)
utilities61
Utilities
  • 4.x
    • User Account
      • NetWare Administrator (NWAdmin)
      • GUI
    • File System
      • NWAdmin
      • FILER
    • Printing
      • NWAdmin
      • PCONSOLE
user account62
User Account
  • User Account Restrictions
    • Password
      • Required (?)
      • min length
      • expiry
      • unique
    • Login
      • MAC address
      • time
      • protocol (4.x)
file system security63
File System Security
  • Basis is User Account
  • Trustee assignments determine Who can do
  • Rights determine What user can do
novell directory services
Novell Directory Services
  • NDS
    • Composed of Objects, Properties and Values
    • Extends the X.500 Specification for Directory Services
    • Is extensible (can add objects and properties)
    • Is integrated with Email apps, DB apps so it can be used for complete Enterprise resource management
object rights
B (Browse)

C (Create)

D (Delete)

R (Rename)

S (Supervisory)

Lets you see the object

Make a new object

Remove an object

Assign a new name

All of the above PLUS S “All Property” rights

Object Rights
property rights
S (Supervisory)

C (Compare)

R (Read)

A (Add Self)

W (Write)

l

All the rights below

Logical comparison of values

Read the prop. values

Add self to ACL

Make changes

used to make a word

Property Rights
selected property rights
Selected Property Rights
  • Using Selected overrides the All Properties assignment for the Selected Property only
  • Beware the Object Trustee (ACL) Property with the W or A rights.
nds security
NDS Security
  • Use the defaults where ever possible
    • 98% of time these are adequate
  • Two cases to add rights
    • Profile Login Script
      • give R Property Right to Login Script property
    • Directory Map Object
      • give R Property Right to Path property
  • Making Administrators
netware printing services80
NetWare Printing Services
  • Currently everything is based on Queues
    • NetWare 5 introduces NDPS
  • Printing Services must be ADDED (they are not part of the core OS)
  • PServer provides printing services to the network
  • NPrinter broadcasts the availability of a printer
login scripts87
Login Scripts
  • Used to set the environment for Users
  • 3.x
    • System Login Script
    • User Login Script
    • Default (part of Login.EXE)
  • 4.x Login Scripts
    • Container -- User
    • Profile -- Default
directory fault tolerance
Directory Fault Tolerance
  • In order to provide fault tolerance for the Directory Database Novell uses Partitioning and Replication
    • Partitioning - process of breaking the database into pieces
    • Replication - process of copying the pieces on to servers around the network.
partitioning
Partitioning
  • The partitioning of the database is done along container lines
  • Default partition is [root] and contains the whole tree
  • Partitions are named for the highest most container
  • Database must be partitioned before it can be replicated
replication
Replication
  • Once the database has been partitioned it can be replicated to other servers
  • A server can hold several different partition replicas on it
  • There are four types of Replicas
    • Master, Read/Write, ReadOnly, Subordinate Reference
master replica
Master Replica
  • Is a complete copy of the partition information
  • Can be used for partition changes
  • Can be used for Object changes
    • in other words, you can log in from a Master Replica
read write replica
Read/Write Replica
  • Contains a complete copy of the replica information
  • Can NOT be used for partition changes, but forwards all those requests to the master
  • Can be used for Object changes (can login to a R/W replica)
  • Used to improve Directory performance and Fault Tolerance
read only replica
Read Only Replica
  • Contains a complete copy of the partition information
  • Can NOT be used for partition or object changes (can’t login to a R/O replica)
  • Is used for Fault Tolerance only
subordinate reference
Subordinate Reference
  • Not really a replica
  • It is exists to aid in Tree walking
netware fault tolerance
NetWare Fault Tolerance
  • File System
    • Hot Fix area
    • Dynamic management of block writes prevents fragmentation
  • Hardware
    • Mirroring, Duplexing
    • SFT II - Server Duplexing
time synchronization
Time Synchronization
  • If the database is spread around the world
  • Servers are around the world, how do we keep track of “Network Time”
  • Single Reference model
  • Time Provider Group model
single reference
Single Reference
  • Default method
    • easy to setup, doesn’t require planning
    • Uses a single reference (first server installed) and everything else is secondary (receiver)
    • Single reference typically uses its own hardware clock but could use an external source
    • Okay for closely knit network
time provider group
Time Provider Group
  • Reference Time server
    • this is the big kahuna
    • all time is set by this server
    • uses an external time source (usually)
  • Primary servers, get their time from Reference.
    • If Reference goes down, they vote on network time
time provider group112
Time Provider Group
  • All servers that are not Reference or Primary are Secondary (time consumers) and do NOT vote for network time.