The Black Death 1347-1351. The Culprits. The Disease Cycl e. Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. . Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. . Human is infected!. Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. The Famine of 1315-1317.
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Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria.
Human is infected!
Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound.
Flea’s gut cloggedwith bacteria.
From the Toggenburg Bible, 1411
The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors.
Flagellanti:Self-inflicted “penance” for sins
Pograms against the Jews
“Golden Circle” obligatory badge
35% - 70% of Europeans died
(depending on where you lived)
Emphasis on reading a source, examining related documents
Primary purpose is to find an answer to a question through a logical process
Emphasis is on finding the one correct answer
Individuals should find the truth, don’t wait for it to be handed to you
Humans have a “spark”
Many ways to discover an answer
Rarely just one answerPhilosophy
System of dependence between manor lords and those who work the land
Goods and services are exchanged. No money is exchanged.
De Medici: powerful banking family from Florence
Wealth = political power
Money, power create greed and abuse of power
Networks of international trade (including the New World)
Winners:Portugal, Spain, England, FranceEconomics
Reciprocal obligations between the three major groups of Medieval society
City-states in Northern Italy
No strong monarchies
Good: wealthy patrons, interested in civic improvement
Bad: Greed, jealousy amongst wealthy families
Emergence of Nation-States in Northern Europe
State = political entity
Nation = cultural or ethnic entity
United by common language, culture, and valuesPolitics
Stylized, religious themes
Art is created to inform, teach
Stiff, less realistic
Harmony, balance, proportion
Modeled after Classic Greece and Rome
on strictly religious
Influenced by Humanism
Art is created to delight and please the viewerThe Arts
Domination of Catholic Church
People are told what to think about scriptures
Church is seen as the most reliable source of information
Clergy are revered, trusted
Renaissance = Man centered
Individual interpretation of scriptures
Great Schism (Avignon)
Groundwork laid for Protestant Reformation
Reform the Catholic Church
Martin Luther, 1517Religion
System of protection, strict hierarchy
Code of Knighthood
Emphasizes virtues such as honor, bravery, loyalty, humility, and sacrifice
Humans possess the ability to think and discoverSociety
“Athens of the Renaissance”
-- Banking is important
industry (no port, like Venice and Genoa)
-- Gold coin (the Florin)
Currency of Europe