Otmcl orientation tracking based localization for mobile sensor networks
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OTMCL: Orientation Tracking-based Localization for Mobile Sensor Networks. Location awareness. Localization is an important component of WSNs Interpreting data from sensors requires context Location and sampling time? Protocols Security systems (e.g., wormhole attacks) Network coverage

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Location awareness
Location awareness Sensor Networks

  • Localization is an important component of WSNs

  • Interpreting data from sensors requires context

    • Location and sampling time?

  • Protocols

    • Security systems (e.g., wormhole attacks)

    • Network coverage

    • Geocasting

    • Location-based routing

  • Sensor Net applications

    • Environment monitoring

    • Event tracking

    • Mapping

How can we determine location
How can we determine location? Sensor Networks

  • GNSS receiver (e.g., GPS, GLONASS)

    • Consider cost, form factor, inaccessibility, lack of line of sight

  • Cooperative localization algorithms

    • Nodes cooperate with each other

    • Anchor-based case:

      • Reference points (anchors) help other nodes estimate their positions

Our goal
Our goal Sensor Networks

  • We are interested in positioning low-powered, resource-constrained sensor nodes

  • A (reasonably) accurate positioning system for mobile networks

    • Low-density, arbitrarily placed anchors and regular nodes

    • Range-free: no special ranging hardware

    • Low communication and computational overhead

    • Adapted to the MANET model

Probabilistic methods
Probabilistic methods Sensor Networks

  • Classic localization algorithms (DV-Hop, Centroid, APIT, etc.) compute the location directly and do not target mobility

  • Probabilistic approach: explicitly considers the impreciseness of location estimates

    • Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE)‏

    • Maximum A Posteriori (MAP)‏

    • Least Squares

    • Kalman Filter

    • Particle Filtering (Sequential Monte Carlo or SMC)‏

Sequential monte carlo localization
Sequential Monte Carlo Localization Sensor Networks

  • Monte Carlo Localization (MCL)‏ [Hu04]

  • Locations are probability distributions

  • Sequentially updated using Monte Carlo sampling as nodes move and anchors are discovered

Mcl initialization
MCL: Initialization Sensor Networks

Node’s actual position

Node’s estimate

Initialization: Node has no knowledge of its location.

L0 = { set of N random locations in the deployment area }

Mcl prediction
MCL: Prediction Sensor Networks

Prediction: New particles based on previous estimated location and maximum velocity, vmax

Node’s actual position

Node’s last estimate

Filtering Sensor Networks



Indirect Anchor

Within distance (r, 2r] of anchor

Direct Anchor

Node is within distance r of


Mcl filtering
MCL : Filtering Sensor Networks

Node’s actual position

Binary filtering: Samples which are not inside the communication range of anchors are discarded





Re sampling
Re-sampling Sensor Networks

  • Repeat prediction and filtering until we obtain a minimum number of samples N.

  • Final estimate is the average of all filtered samples

  • If no samples found, reposition at the center of deployment area (initialization)

Other smc based works
Other SMC-based works Sensor Networks

  • MCB [Baggio08]

    • Better prediction: smaller sampling area using neighbor coordinates

  • MSL [Rudhafshani07]

    • Better filtering: use information from non-anchor nodes after they are localized

    • Samples are weighted according to reliability of neighbors (non-binary filter)

Issue sample degradation

Problem 1: Predicted samples with wrong direction or velocity

Problem 2: Previous location estimate is not well-localized

Issue: Sample degradation

Why don’t we tell where samples should be generated?

Sensor bias
Sensor bias Localization (OTMCL)

  • Inertial sensor is subject to bias due to

    • Magnetic interference

    • Temperature variation

    • Erroneous calibration

  • Affects velocity and orientation estimation during movement

    • Lower localization accuracy

  • No assumptions about hardware

    • Analyses use 3 categories of nodes for OTMCL based on β

      • High-precision sensors ( β= 10o)

      • Medium-precision sensors ( β= 30o, β= 45o)

      • Low-precision sensors ( β = 90o)

Analysis convergence time
Analysis – Convergence time Localization (OTMCL)

relative to communication range

stabilization phase

~ 7m

OTMCL achieves a decent performance even when the inertial sensor is under heavy bias

Analysis communication overhead
Analysis – Communication overhead Localization (OTMCL)

  • Reducing power consumption is a primary issue in WSNs

    • Limited batteries

    • Inhospitable scenarios

  • Assumes no data aggregation, compression

  • OTMCL needs less information to achieve similar accuracy to MSL

Analysis anchor density
Analysis – Anchor density Localization (OTMCL)

OTMCL is robust even when the anchor network is sparse

Analysis speed variance
Analysis – Speed variance Localization (OTMCL)

As speed increases, the larger is the sampling area  lower accuracy

Analysis communication irregularity
Analysis – Communication Irregularity Localization (OTMCL)

OTMCL is robust to radio irregularity. Dead reckoning is responsible for maintaining accuracy

Conclusion Localization (OTMCL)

  • Monte Carlo localization

    • Achieves accurate localization cheaply with low anchor density

  • Orientation data promotes higher accuracy even on adverse conditions (low density, communication errors)

  • Our contribution:

    • A positioning system with limited communication requirements, improved accuracy and robustness to communication failures

  • Future work

    • Adaptive localization (e.g., variable sampling rate, variable sample number)

    • Feasibility in a real WSN

Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention Localization (OTMCL)


appendix Localization (OTMCL)

Otmcl necessary number of samples
OTMCL: Necessary number of samples Localization (OTMCL)

Estimate error fairly stable when N > 50

Analysis regular node density
Analysis – Regular node density Localization (OTMCL)

OTMCL is robust even when the anchor network is sparse

Is it feasible on computational overhead
Is it feasible? (On computational overhead) Localization (OTMCL)

  • Impact of sampling (trials until fill sample set)

Radio model
Radio model Localization (OTMCL)

  • Upper & lower bounds on signal strength

  • Beyond UB, all nodes are out of communication range

  • Within LB, every node is within the comm. range

  • Between LB & UB, there is (1) symmetric communication, (2) unidirectional comm., or (3) no comm.

  • Degree of Irregularity (DOI) ([Zhou04])