2010 FRQ’s for Macroeconomics

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# 2010 FRQ’s for Macroeconomics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

2010 FRQ’s for Macroeconomics.

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1. Assume that the United States economy is currently in long-run equilibrium.(a) Draw a correctly labeled graph of aggregate demand and aggregate supply and show each of the following.(i) The long-run aggregate supply curve(ii) The current equilibrium output and price levels, labeled as YE and PLE, respectively

LRAS

SRAS

Price

Level

PLe

Ye

Real GDP

(b) Assume that the government increases spending on national defense without raising taxes.(i) On your graph in part (a), show how the government action affects aggregate demand.

LRAS

SRAS

Price

Level

PL1

PLe

Ye

RGDP1

Real GDP

(ii) How will this government action affect the unemployment rate in the short run? Explain.

Unemployment rate will DECREASE. Real GDP will INCREASE. Businesses are producing MORE Goods/Services so they will need MORE people to product those goods/services. (The ACTUAL unemployment rate will be LESS THAN (or Below) the Natural Rate of Unemployment)

(c) Assume that the economy adjusts to a new long-run equilibrium after the increase in government spending.(i) How will the short-run aggregate supply curve in the new long-run equilibrium compare with that inthe initial long-run equilibrium in part (a) ? Explain.

• Because of inflation and the low unemployment rate, wages will increase. Wages are a major input price in the Cost of Producing a good. The Cost of Producing will INCREASE. SRAS curve will shift to the LEFT. The new SRAS will lie to the left of the original SRAS curve.
(ii) On your graph in part (a), label the new long-run equilibrium price level as PL2.

LRAS

SRAS

Price

Level

PL2

PL1

PLe

Ye

RGDP1

Real GDP

(d) In order to finance the increase in government spending on national defense from part (b), the government borrows funds from the public. Using a correctly labeled graph of the loanable funds market, show the effect of the government’s borrowing on the real interest rate.

Market for Loanable Funds

SLF*

Real

Interest

Rate

r1

r*

DLF1

DLF*

QLF*

Qlf1

Quantity of Loanable Funds

(e) Given the change in the real interest rate in part (d), what is the impact on each of the following?(i) Investment(ii) Economic growth rate. Explain.

Investment: As a result of the increase in the real interest rate, business will borrow LESS money to replace capital goods, buy new capital goods, expand factory production or build new factories.

Economic Growth: As a result of decreased investment spending, the nations CAPITAL STOCK will DECREASE thereby DECREASING future economic growth

Question #2
• 2. A drop in credit card fees causes people to use credit cards more often for transactions and demand less money.
• (a) Using a correctly labeled graph of the money market, show how the nominal interest rate will be affected.

Money Market

MS*

Nominal

Interest

Rate

i*

i1

Dm*

Dm1

Qms*

Quantity of Money

b) Given the interest rate change in part (a), what will happen to bond prices in the short run?
• There is an INVERSE relationship between interest rates and bond prices. The nominal interest rate decreases and bond prices will increase.
(c) Given the interest rate change in part (a), what will happen to the price level in the short run? Explain
• The interest rate decreases. Consumption expenditures will increase as people borrow more money to buy houses, cars, other goods. Business will borrow more more money to replace capital goods, buy new capital goods, build new factories. The dollar will depreciate as US financial assets become less desirable. US Exports will increase and Imports to the US will decrease. Net exports will increase. RGDP will Increase. Aggregate Demand will Increase and shift to the right. PRICE LEVEL WILL INCREASE.

(d) Identify an open-market operation the Federal Reserve could use to keep the nominal interest rate constant at the level that existed before the drop in credit card fees. Explain.

• The Federal Reserve would SELL BONDS. This would DECREASE the money supply. Shifting the Money Supply curve to the left and INCREASING the Nominal Interest RATE.

3. A United States firm sells \$10 million worth of goods to a firm in Argentina, where the currency is the peso.(a) How will the transaction above affect Argentina’s aggregate demand? Explain.

• Buying FROM the US would be an IMPORT for Argentina. This would DECREASE Aggregate Demand for Argentina, if all other variables are held constant.

(b) Assume that the United States current account balance with Argentina is initially zero. How will the transaction above affect the United States current account balance? Explain.

• This will count as an EXPORT for the US. It would be an CREDIT under the Current Account and would create a Trade SURPLUS in the Current Account.

(c) Using a correctly labeled graph of the foreign exchange market for the United States dollar, show how a decrease in the United States financial investment in Argentina affects each of the following.(i) The supply of United States dollars(ii) The value of the United States dollar relative to the peso

S1

Peso

Price

Per

Dollar

S\$*

P/\$1

P/\$*

D\$*

Q\$1

Q\$*

Quantity of Dollars

(d) Suppose that the inflation rate is 3 percent in the United States and 5 percent in Argentina. What will happen to the value of the peso relative to the United States dollar as a result of the difference in inflation rates? Explain.

• Price levels in the US are lower than in Argentina. US good and services are relatively less expensive. Argentinians will want to buy in the US. The supply of Pesos will INCREASE in the FOREX. The Dollar price per Peso will decrease. The Peso DEPRECIATES relative to the US dollar.